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Title: A novel approach to increasing the reliability of accelerator magnets


Author: Bellomo, P; Rago, CE; Spencer, CM; Wilson, ZJ

Year: 2000

Abstract: When a very large particle accelerator with about 8000 electromagnets, such as the proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC), has an 85% overall availability goal, then all these magnets and their power supplies must be highly reliable and/or quickly repairable. An interdisciplinary reliability engineering approach, more commonly applied to aircraft and space vehicles, has been taken to design maximum reliability in the NLC main linac quadrupoles, while maintaining magnetic field performance and reducing cost. A specially assembled team of engineers with a variety of experiences with magnets carried out a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on a standard SLAG quadrupole magnet system. This process helped them identify which components were less reliable. Then they redesigned the quadrupole to avoid all the potential problems. A prototype magnet will be made and tested to ensure that functionality has not been lost.

Title: Failure mode and effect analysis for safety-critical systems with software components


Author: Cichocki, T; Gorski, J

Year: 2000

Abstract: One of possible ways to achieve a very high level of confidence in a system is to develop its adequate model and then to analyse the properties of this model. The paper presents how object oriented modelling extended with formal specifications is used to support FMEA of software intensive systems. The paper refers to the case study of a computerised railway signalling system.

Title: Software FMEA techniques


Author: Goddard, PL

Year: 2000

Abstract: Assessing the safety characteristics of software driven safety critical systems is problematic. Methods to allow assessment of the behavior of processing systems have appeared in the literature, but provide incomplete system safety evaluation. Assessing the safety characteristics of small embedded processing platforms performing control functions has been particularly difficult. The use of fault tolerant, diverse, processing platforms has been one approach taken to compensate for the lack of assurance of safe operation of single embedded processing platforms. This approach raises cost and, in at least some cases where a safe state can be demonstrated, is unnecessary. Over the past decade, the author has performed software FMEA on embedded automotive platforms for brakes, throttle, and steering with promising results. Use of software FMEA at a system and a detailed level has allowed visibility of software and hardware architectural approaches which assure safety of operation while minimizing the cost of safety critical embedded processor designs. Software FMEA has been referred to in the technical literature for more than fifteen years. Additionally, software FMEA has been recommended for evaluating critical systems in some standards, notably draft IEC 61508. Software FMEA is also provided for in the current drafts of SAE ARP 5580. However, techniques for applying software FMEA to systems during their design have been largely missing from the literature. Software FMEA has been applied to the assessment of safety critical real-time control systems embedded in military and automotive products over the last decade. The paper is a follow on to and provides significant expansion to the software FMEA techniques originally described in the 1993 RAMS paper "Validating The Safety Of Real-Time Control Systems Using FMEA".

Title: Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) over the WWW


Author: Huang, GQ; Shi, J; Mak, KL

Year: 2000

Abstract: Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is one of the formal techniques for effective product development. Its main purpose is to avoid as many potential failures as possible by identifying them and taking appropriate actions in the early stages of design and development. Stand-alone FMEA software packages are commercially available in the market. They offer limited support for teamwork. This paper proposes to employ the World Wide Web (WWW, web) technology to provide FMEA services on the internet/intranets. Resulting web-based FMEA systems require no installation or maintenance brit offer remote and simultaneous access and therefore better teamwork.

Title: Use of fault tree analysis for evaluation of system-reliability improvements in design phase


Author: Krasich, M

Year: 2000

Abstract: Traditional Failure Mode and Effects Analysis is applied as a bottom-up analytical technique to identify component failure modes and their causes and effects on the system performance, estimate their likelihood, severity and criticality or priority for mitigation. Failure modes and their causes, other than those associated with hardware, primarily electronic, remained poorly addressed or not addressed at all. Likelihood of occurrence was determined on the basis of component failure rates or by applying engineering judgement in their estimation. Resultant prioritization is consequently difficult so that only the apparent safety-related or highly critical issues were addressed. When thoroughly done, traditional FMEA or FMECA were too involved to be used as a effective tool fbr reliability improvement of the product design. Fault Tree Analysis applied to the product as a top down in view of its functionality, failure definition, architecture, and stress and operational profiles provides a methodical way of following products functional flow down to the low level assemblies, components, failure modes, and respective causes and their combination. Flexibility of modeling of various functional conditions and interaction such as enabling events, events with specific priority of occurrence, etc., using ETA, provides for accurate representation of their functionality interdependence. In addition to being capable of accounting for mixed reliability attributes (failure rates mixed with failure probabilities), fault trees are easy to construct and change for quick tradeoffs as roll up of unreliability values is automatic for instant evaluation of the final quantitative reliability results. Failure mode analysis using fault tree technique that is described in this paper allows for real, in-depth engineering evaluation of each individual cause of a failure mode regarding software and hardware components, their functions, stresses, operability, and interactions.

Title: Failure modeling and process monitoring for flexible manufacturing systems using colored timed Petri nets


Author: Kuo, CH; Huang, HP

Year: 2000

Abstract: The performance of a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) depends on the equipment efficiency and process control. In order to increase the equipment efficiency, the failure mode analysis and fault diagnosis can be used to reduce the frequency of unexpected breakdowns of machines. In addition, the statistical process control (SPC) can be used for adjusting the process parameters to eliminate process variations. In this paper, a colored timed Petri net (CTPN) is used to model the process behavior of an FMS. In addition, the CTPN-based SPC, fault diagnosis, and failure model and effect analysis are modeled and analyzed individually, Especially, all of the modular models are integrated and linked based on the CTPN, Due to the unified CTPN modeling, the information of each modular model in the entire system can be exchanged and integrated directly and efficiently, Finally, the entire CTPN FMS models are implemented using G2 real-time expert system. Consequently, the proposed CTPN-based simulator can be acted as a real-time PMS monitor and controller through the G2 standard interface.

Title: Net shape cold forging to close tolerances under QS 9000 aspects


Author: Meidert, M; Hansel, M

Year: 2000

Abstract: The paper outlines the quality tools suggested by QS 9000 which have to be applied in the process design and development phase and also in the product and the process validation phase in the specific case of cold forging. Examples of complicated net shape cold Forging parts are given. The benefit of application of the finite element method (FEM) in process design and optimization is described. Quality methods like statistical process control (SPC), process failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and their limits are discussed. The advantages of worker self inspection by use of a flexible coordinate measurement machine (CMM), quality control by neuronal network and of total tool management are pointed out. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

Title: Selection of accident sequences for the new design of ITER


Author: Pinna, T; Caporali, R; Burgazzi, L

Year: 2000

Abstract: The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is now evolving towards new solutions devoted to reduce costs, and consequently objectives, with respect to the ones characterizing the first ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) phase. Because the revision process will lead to new dimension-systems configuration, compliance with the safety requirements fixed for the reactor has to be demonstrated again for the now design, since deterministic accident analyses, generally speaking, will not be applicable any more without detailed verification, An exhaustive new set of reference accident sequences has then to be defined and, transient analyses performed for such sequences have to assure that the overall range of possible plant damages has been assessed against targets for releases and other criteria. As in the prior phase, it has been decided to define the list of possible accident initiators through a new failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and then to develop these initiators in an event Tree (ET) model to define the relevant accident sequences. The extensive set of accident sequences that will conic out has then to be treated to select the most representative ones. Not relevant accident sequences will be screened out taking also into account the results of the uncertainty analysis performed by a Monte Carlo method, as allowed by the RISKSPECTRUM software. This paper describes the work performed along these guidelines for the first wall (FW) cooling system: analogous analysis is in progress for the other ITER systems, as modified by the new design.

Title: State analysis: an alternative approach to FMEA, FTA and Markov analysis


Author: Ruiz, I; Paniagua, E; Alberto, J; Sanabria, J

Year: 2000

Abstract: State Analysis is an alternative functional approach to any other failure analysis technique that tries to face with current product and process design requirements. While other methodologies discover failures without a complete system understanding, State Analysis focuses on finding system level failure modes by means of building a full functional model. State Analysis grades failure modes in a more representative way by means of applying a customer reaction model, of combining factors, of following fuzzy rules and of including uncertainties. In this way, you are able to focus on important issues and produce field failure rate estimates with these results. Applying State Analysis, a total of 635 issue shave been identified in 12 sessions, of 2 hours, with an average of 7 people per session. An FMEA of a function was done with different people involved in order to compare. The results were: double time investment, 8 people involved and no critical subsystem interaction issues detected. State Analysis has been found an intuitive, comprehensive and eas tool to analyze product functions, failures and design weaknesses within the IPD (Integrated Product Design) environment.

Title: A laser marking system for flexible circuit identification


Author: Sheu, DD

Year: 2000

Abstract: The ability to mark and read product identifications for tracking the flexible circuits in production lines is critical for a major inkjet pen manufacturer. The investigation showed that commercially available marking machines were not acceptable due to contamination, physical damage, and readability issues. This paper describes the development of a new laser-based integrated marking system and its development methodology. Failure modes effect analysis (FMEA) was used to identify and prioritize potential risks that led to output parameters for subsequent design of experiments (DOE). The input parameters were optimized for a small number of key output parameters. Qualification processes were then used to make sure that all risks were within acceptable ranges. An integrated marker was built to automatically differentiate flex types, enabling a foolproof marking. The key success factors and the three stages of implementation for the project were noted. The readability was 99.9% for the identification marks at the first manufacturing release. The system enabled product tracking and faster manufacturing problem diagnoses.

Title: HASS Development method: Screen development, change schedule, and re-prove schedule


Author: Silverman, M

Year: 2000

Abstract: HALT and HASS are two very powerful tools that can help manufacturers achieve high reliability quickly both in the design phase and in the manufacturing phase. HALT is used in the design phase to help reduce the number of design-related problems. HASS is used in the production phase to help reduce the number of infant mortality types of failures. HALT is always performed prior to developing a HASS profile because the HASS profile uses the information from HALT when choosing the profile parameters. Screens for HASS are always developed using a HASS Development process. The goal of HASS Development is to provide the most effective and quickest screen possible The effectiveness of the screen is measured in its ability to find defects in the product without removing significant life. This paper describes different methods of developing a screen using the HASS Development methodology and gives guidelines on when to change a screen and when it is necessary to re-submit a product through the HASS Development process in order to reprove a screen.

Title: Reliability-centered maintenance management: A case study on a public bus system


Author: Su, KW; Hwang, SL; Liu, TH

Year: 2000

Abstract: This study is to identify and analyze the critical effects and risk priorities (quantitatively and qualitatively) in the reliability of a public transportation system. The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique is applied which is involved with an iterative process of a dependability assessment named reliability-centered maintenance(RCM). The diesel engine bus system of Taipei City is selected as a case in the present study. By FMEA report, the operational reliability of the overall bus system can be evaluated as references for Bus Administration Authority in purchasing a new system, evaluating actual serviceability and making parts or subsystem renewal decisions as well as enhancing maintenance quality performance and public transportation safety. Significance: The proposed RCM technique is easy to be implemented in a practical application. One can identify critical failure modes and support the effective preventive maintenance program with an iterative process of a dependability assessment. In addition, the approach is well defined to highlight maintenance problems in its practicality and flexibility.

Title: Markovian software safety measurement with reliability growth process


Author: Tokuno, K; Yamada, S

Year: 2000

Abstract: This paper reconstructs a quantitative software safety/reliability model based on the Markovian software reliability one with imperfect debugging proposed by Yamada et al. [1], and provides a metrics of software safe ty defined as the probability that the system does not fall into hazardous states at a specified time point. Tokuno and Yamada [2] suggested two stochastic software safety assessment models assuming that the system may fall into unsafe states only when software failures occur. In contrast, the attention of this paper is directed to the event that the system causes hazardous conditions randomly in operation. In particular, we assume that some of debugging activities contribute to software safety improvement as well in software safety modeling. We refer to the difference of the definitions between software safety and reliability. Software safety is defined as the attribute that software systems do not induce unsafe conditions or states. Software systems in unsafe states lead to fatal accidents, mishaps, and hazards; for instance, financial losses or injuries to human life. By contrast, software reliability is defined as the attribute that systems can continue to operate according to the specifications without software failures; these are unacceptable departures from program operations caused by faults remaining in the systems. Accordingly, all of software failure-occurrences do not cause the problems relating to safety and systems may not always keep safe states even though they function in accordance with the specifications [3]. There are little techniques for assessing software safety, for example, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) are qualitative static methods. But recently, quantitative evaluation methods for measuring software safety in dynamic environment begin to be required since there are limitations oil analyzing the time-dependent state-transitions for safety-critical systems with FTA and FMEA. However, such methods scarcely exist. Several stochastic quantities for software safety/reliability measurement are derived from this model and numerical illustrations are also presented.

Title: The virtual maintenance system: A computer-based support tool for robust design, product monitoring, fault diagnosis and maintenance planning


Author: van Houten, FJAM; Kimura, F

Year: 2000

Abstract: Digital (geometric) product models can be used for maintainability analysis and maintenance planning. It is not feasible to build digital product models for maintenance purposes only, but if a digital product model is available, it may be used to support many maintenance-related engineering tasks. Examples are: Product life cycle simulation (the influence of product use on product performance), deterioration analysis (the influence of wear on product function), Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA), product model-based monitoring (to relate sensor signals to failure modes), failure diagnosis, disassemblability analysis (for repair and replacement), maintenance ergonomic analysis (to ease the work of maintenance personnel), etc. At the University of Tokyo, a Virtual Maintenance System has been developed to support the activities mentioned above. The system makes it possible to relate predicted product behaviour and specific signals, which can be detected by sensors and can be used to avoid catastrophic failure. This creates better possibilities for condition-based maintenance and Design for Maintainability. Future CAD systems should support product life cycle issues right from the start of the design process.

Title: Competitive and sustainable integration of RE using product development tools


Author: Buchtela, G; Trogisch, S; Baaske, W; Lancaster, B; Fruhmann, A

Year: 2000

Abstract: RE are at a level that allows successful installation from a technical and economical point of view. Handable tools to ensure easy installation including also social factors in the design and decision process have to be established. Seldom the energy supply of a region is a result of a subsequent market driven product development process but mostly it is the result of pure chance. The steps within product development (product definition --> design --> preparation --> production --> sales & service) are at a cursory consideration not really suitable to the implementation of RE because the implementation is not a design process in the common sense of the word. Different tools to ensure the success of a design process in product design (FDA, morphologic box, QFD, FMEA) have been developed by various researchers. As result of the current work it has been tried to adapt these tools to develop strategies for RE implementation. Based on the methods mentioned above different tools to transform the local and regional stakeholder requirements and demands into quantified energy scenarios and into requirement specifications for single projects have been developed The results derived from these methods have applied in different European regions and their success has been compared. Possible criteria for the verification of the methodology are the overall economic benefit of the energy scenario (created by the methodology), the technological and logistical feasibility of the scenario, and the social and legistical compatibility of the scenarios with locally, regional and national constraints. As result of this work a set of tools to ensure a holistic and successful integration of renewable energies in local energy supply based on the QFD method (Quality function deployment), FMEA (Failure mode and error analysis) and FDA (Fuzzy dependency analysis) has been developed. Already at a very early stage important differences for the implementation of RE can be seen and taken into account. The scientific innovation is the integration of different product development and opinion poll methods into the RE scenario (which to our knowledge has never been done before.). The use of the developed methods results in more competitive energy supply.

Title: A methodology for architectural-level risk assessment using dynamic metrics


Author: Yacoub, SM; Ammar, HH; Robinson, T

Year: 2000

Abstract: Risk assessment is an essential process of every software risk management plan. Sever al risk assessment techniques are bused on the subjective judgement of domain experts. Subjective risk assessment techniques are human intensive and error-prone. Risk assessment should be based on product attributes that we can quantitatively measure using product metrics. This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment at the Early stages of the development lifecycle, namely the architecture level. We describe a heuristic risk assessment methodology that is based on dynamic metrics obtained from UML specifications. The methodology uses dynamic complexity and dynamic coupling metrics to define complexity factors for the architecture elements (components and connectors). Severity analysis is performed using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as applied to the architecture simulation models. We combine severity and complexity factors to develop heuristic risk factors Sol the architecture components and connectors. Based on component dependency graphs -that were developed earlier for reliability analysis- and using analysis scenarios, we develop a risk assessment model and a risk analysis algorithm that aggregates risk factors of components and connectors to the architectural level. We show how to analyze the overall risk factor of the architecture as the function of the risk factors of its constituting components and connectors. A case study of a pacemaker is used to illustrate the application of the methodology.

Title: Reliability analysis of machining centers


Author: Chen, DS; Jia, YZ; Zhang, LB; Cui, YG

Year: 2000

Abstract: The early failure test for the Chinese machining centers has been carried out in order to identify their deficiencies in design and manufacture. The early failure data were got, so the early failure database of the machining centers was established, which was the basic information for analyzing the early failures. Through analyzing the early failure data, the main early failure positions and failure modes were found. Finally, a detailed FMEA for the hydraulic system of the machining centers was given.

Title: Designing for failure: Managing the failure response through analysis


Author: Bowles, JB

Year: 2000

Abstract: The failure of an item to meet carefully defined user functions or performance requirements can bring about disastrous results. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a powerful tool that can be used by design engineers during all phases of product development to eliminate or mitigate the effects of a failure. FMEA examines the modes and causes of item failures and determines the product response in the presence of such failures. When the product response is known a priori, steps can be taken to prevent what might lead to unwanted consequences. A structured approach to the FMEA ensures that all appropriate failure modes are analyzed, that the system satisfies its fault mitigation requirements, and that these requirements are properly allocated. The FMEA methodology is further extended into the Detailed Design Phase to verify that the product complies with the specified requirements.

Title: ADI-FMM, a customized FMEA for process management in the IC assembly and test industy


Author: Mena, MG

Year: 2000

Abstract: Analog Devices, Inc. has developed the Failure Mechanism Methodology as a customized FMEA for integrated circuit assembly and testing. This system, an integrated approach towards process management involves the generation of two dimensional matrices relating failure mechanisms to product attributes to process variables, controls, in-line and time zero monitors. The system also allows for the identification of relevant short loop and long loop reliability stresses for process qualifications. Two-dimensional matrices relating failure mechanisms to assembly design rules and test blocks also provide product and package designers an up-front assessment of the expected performance of their designs.

Title: Practical risk analysis as a tool for minimizing plastic product failures


Author: Medhekar, S; Moalli, J; Caligiuri, R

Year: 2000

Abstract: Risk analysis techniques have become increasingly popular in the industrial sector, especially with the increasing number of mandated quality programs worldwide. Methods such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and others are gaining wide recognition for their utility in product design. This paper discusses the practical use of risk analysis in plastic product systems as an up-front tool for design and product evaluation. Simplified techniques are presented which minimize the cumbersome nature of the risk analysis process and allow for more effective and efficient design and testing programs.

Title: Assessment of technical risks


Author: Walker, RW

Year: 2000

Abstract: In future more organisations must evaluate the risk of new projects before any significant expenditure is incurred. At present, in some companies, risk is not assessed in detail prior to commencing the project. This has resulted in a number of high profile failures particularly in defence contracts. Man), companies are now using Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) for evaluating the risk of failure during the detail design stage, often based on QS 9000(1) standard. This paper proposes an additional process to the QS 9000 procedure that can be used to evaluate the project risks in a way that will be widely understood in those organisations that already use FMEA, thus assisting management in making rational decisions.

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