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Title: Fuel cycle optimization for pressurized water reactors

Source: ATW-INTERNATIONALE ZEITSCHRIFT FUR KERNENERGIE

Author: Beer, M; Guldner, R; Weber, E

Year: 1999

Abstract: Any lasting improvement in the competitiveness of nuclear power within tomorrow's deregulated power market also requires further optimization of the fuel cycle. The increase in batch average discharge burnup from 40 MWd/kg U to 50 MWd/kg U achieved this decade has already made a significant contribution towards reducing the costs of nuclear power generation. Economic analyses carried out by plant operators show that further increases in burnup offer additional potential for reducing fuel cycle costs. This potential can be reached by enhancing fuel utilization even further and, above all, by increasing fuel enrichment up to 5 wt. % U-235, currently the worldwide limit for fabrication and shipment. The cost-saving potential that this entails is large enough to finance the investments required to achieve higher burnups. Siemens, as a nuclear fuel vendor, has played a significant role in enabling the present burnup levels to be reached, especially through the development of corrosion-resistant cladding materials such as those of its duplex cladding tubes. Together with several plant operators, Siemens is currently in the process of verifying that new materials for structural components and cladding tubes are suitable for high burnup Levels by irradiating lead fuel assemblies under various operating conditions. In the course of efforts to increase discharge burnups, during which uprating and advanced in-core management strategies may result in more severe loads being imposed on the fuel assemblies, the issue of fuel reliability and zero-defect cycles takes top priority. This is not only one of the plant operators' key requirements, but also a natural obligation for Siemens as a fuel vendor. One of the ways in which Siemens contributes towards achieving this goal is to investigate major problems such as grid-to-rod fretting caused by flow -induced vibration. In its engineering and design work, it has introduced stare-of-the-art techniques such as Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on a large scale. Extensive experience gained over many years from the operation of numerous fuel reloads and lead fuel assemblies plays an important role in this connection. In the area of fabrication, increased automation accompanied by systematical process improvements through the application of statistical process control guarantee a high standard of quality. High operational flexibility is another key aspect associated with fuel cycle optimization. Here, too, top priority is given to ensuring safe operation of the reactor core with adequately large margins to damage limits. In addition to advanced fuel assembly designs, such as FOCUS or HTP, which provide the potential initially required for high operational flexibility, powerful codes and advanced techniques are also necessary for achieving this goal. With CASCADE-3D - an integrated code system for core design and safety analysis and statistical fuel rod design, Siemens provides the requisite tools for attaining optimum fuel utilization and plant availability. The steps taken by plant operators and fuel vendors to optimize the fuel cycle are naturally accompanied and monitored by licensing authorities and authorized inspection agencies. For this, objective and constructive cooperation must be the aim of all parties concerned.


Title: A modified FMEA tool for use in identifying and addressing common cause failure risks in industry

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 1999 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Childs, JA; Mosleh, A

Year: 1999

Abstract: The nature of common cause failures (CCFs) is explored in the context of existing analytical techniques. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is described as a means for accomplishing early risk assessment in the context of an existing analysis framework. Cause and coupling factor taxonomies are refined to fit the FMEA methodology. This modification allows consideration of CCF risks. Blending this methodology with the standard FMEA process enables a seamless prioritization of single failure and CCF risks for further studies and actions. An example is provided to illustrate the use of this new tool.


Title: The control of quality in industrial paint and powder coating plant

Source: TRANSACTIONS OF THE INSTITUTE OF METAL FINISHING

Author: Cowley, M

Year: 1999

Abstract: Engineering organisations have for many years used sophisticated techniques for planning, measuring and the final analysis of finished product performance to meet a zero reject capability. The industrial application of paints, lacquers, varnishes and powders is seldom treated this way except in the larger organisations such as the automotive industry. The result for the small to medium enterprise is excessive costs due to poor planning lack of control and failure to audit the real cause for rejects. This inevitably leads to increased rework and panic production with escalating costs and end user dissatisfaction. The use of FMEA techniques in plant design and pre-production along with SPC techniques in all stages of finishing operations can show great benefits to the applicator. The paper gives a systematic approach and practical examples of how these and other techniques can be used to plan for improved duality standards. Practical test methods, plant controls and performance audits are discussed as is how their effect can be proved to be a profitable return on investment for organisations faced with meeting increased quality and delivery requirements from their customers.


Title: Using a failure modes, effects and diagnostic analysis (FMEDA) to measure diagnostic coverage in programmable electronic systems

Source: RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY

Author: Goble, WM; Brombacher, AC

Year: 1999

Abstract: One of the key issues in the quantitative evaluation of programmable electronic systems is the diagnostic capability of the equipment. This is measured by a parameter called the Coverage Factor, C. This factor can vary widely. The range of possible values is often the subject of great debate. Within limits, the diagnostic coverage factor can be calculated by knowing which component failure modes are detected by diagnostics. An extension of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) can be used to show this information. This extension, called a Failure Modes, Effects and Diagnostic Analysis can serve as a useful design verification tool as well as a means to provide more precise input to reliability and safety modeling. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


Title: Web-based failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)

Source: COMPUTERS & INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Author: Huang, GQ; Nie, M; Mak, KL

Year: 1999

Abstract: This paper presents a prototype computer system that supports FMEA on the Internet. The general procedure of applying the web-based FMEA is as follows. The user, whether in Hong Kong or Mainland China or other parts of the world, uses the web browser to connect the client machine to the FMEA web server which may be located in Hong Kong headquarters or at manufacturing plants in Mainland China. Once connected, the user follows the system instructions and enters the necessary inputs on the appropriate web pages. The inputted data are analysed locally by the client machines or sent to the server for relevant processing. Both inputted data and derived data are stored in a database which may reside in the client machine or the FMEA web server or another networked database server. Hard copies of relevant documents may be generated and printed out as necessary according to the client requests. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


Title: Qualitative circuit models in failure analysis reasoning

Source: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Author: Lee, MH

Year: 1999

Abstract: The engineering task of failure analysis involves reasoning about the behaviour of a system using appropriate models of system components and structure. This paper describes methods of qualitatively modelling electrical circuits that support the requirements for certain combinatorially demanding forms of failure analysis. Minimal models, based on zero-order quiescent conditions, are examined and a particular formulation, known as CIRQ, is shown to be an effective and efficient model with strong intuitive features. Theoretical background is given and simulation algorithms are described. These models have been used as the basis for successful failure analysis software packages that solve large-scale real applications involving repeated behaviour inference. The contributions of this work include the development of minimal qualitative circuit models and simulation algorithms, an understanding of their relationship to certain graph-theoretic properties of circuits and the relevance of such models for fault modelling in FMEA tasks. The limitations of the approach are discussed and its relation to other work is examined. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.


Title: Process safety for electronics of tractors and agricultural machinery

Source: CONFERENCE: AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Author: Martinus, M; Freimann, R

Year: 1999

Abstract: The objective of this paper is td contribute to new methods of ensuring human and environmental safety of process control electronics for tractors and agricultural machinery. Two different concepts have been developed. The first one works by analyzing the system-interfaces and developing an universal table of safety-related parameters. The second concept concentrates on the investigation of a higher number of unique system configurations, so that general safety-related aspects can be found. FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) and the simulation of work processes on PCs can help to develop implementation approaches which are suitable to be used in an early state of development.


Title: Towards task-oriented user support for failure mode and effects analysis

Source: MULTIPLE APPROACHES TO INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS

Author: Peter, G; Rosner, D

Year: 1999

Abstract: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is an important method for preventive quality management. However, the issue of user support has largely been ignored. We have developed an approach for a task-oriented user support. Its goals are: (1) to aid a user in getting her work organized; (2) to improve FMEA results by providing suitable evaluation functions; and (3) to support the search for relevant information. In this paper, we focus on the first two goals. The support given is situation-specific, i.e., the state of the current task and the role of the user requesting advice, are taken into account. The major resource is an explicit model of the task at hand. FMEA is representative of information-intensive and support-intensive tasks which can be described by hierarchial task model.


Title: Safety and reliability analysis

Source: ADVANCES IN OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS AND SAFETY

Author: Ray, PS

Year: 1999

Abstract: There are several instruments currently available for analyzing hazards prevalent in a system. The two frequently used are Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), and Hazard Analysis(HA). FMEA was developed by reliability engineers and was used primarily for hardware hazard analysis and evaluating reliability of design. FMEA did not cover hazards due to human error, environmental factor, or system interfaces. HA was developed by safety engineers and includes hazards in hardware, environmental factors, and system interfaces. Due to different backgrounds, many organizations have different groups engineers performing FMEA and HA. This practice has resulted in a compartmentalized approach in hazard analysis-and introduced duplication due to overlapping analysis. An integrated approach is able to eliminate this duplication and foster efficiency in safety hazard analysis process. A case study conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) revealed definite advantages of an integrated approach of safety and reliability analysis.


Title: KB3: Computer program for automatic generation of fault trees.

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 1999 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Renault, I; Pilliere, M; Villatte, N; Mouttapa, P

Year: 1999

Abstract: KB3, formerly named EXPRESS, is a knowledge based workbench that assists in building reliability models. At EDF, KB3 is used for the safety studies of nuclear power plants. It is founded on knowledge bases describing generic classes of components, with their behaviour and failure modes. This description results of a generic Functional Analysis (FA) and a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) of the systems and is written in a dedicated language, called FIGARO, developed at EDF. Using these classes of components, the user can describe the studied system in a graphical system editor and generate fault trees for different missions of the system. He can also add specific knowledge about the system. Thus, he can be released from the limits of the generic knowledge base. KB3 may be linked with different codes for the quantification of the generated fault trees.


Title: A function-centered framework for reasoning about system failure at multiple levels of abstraction

Source: EXPERT SYSTEMS

Author: Russomanno, DJ

Year: 1999

Abstract: This paper presents the knowledge organization for a simulation subsystem that is a component of a comprehensive expert system for failure modes and effects analysis. Organizing the simulation subsystem's knowledge base around a function-centered ontology produces an architecture that facilitates reasoning about an engineering design at multiple levels of abstraction and throughout the life-cycle of the design. Moreover, the resulting architecture provides the capability for incorporating computer-aided analysis and design tools early on into the conceptual design of an engineering system before a commitment is made to a specific technology to implement the system's behavior. The result is an expert system simulation knowledge source that can be used to reason about the effects of system failures based on conceptual designs, i.e. designs in which commitments to an underlying technology to achieve the system's function have nor yet been made bur computer-aided assistance for reasoning about the system's potential failure modes and effects is useful.


Title: Simulating electrical devices with complex behaviour

Source: AI COMMUNICATIONS

Author: Snooke, NA

Year: 1999

Abstract: Automotive electrical and electronic systems have become very sophisticated in a relatively short time. This complexity has both led to the increased need for design analysis tools and the need for these tools to deal with more complex components. Qualitative simulation of electrical circuits has proven to be invaluable in the development of several design analysis techniques and the ability to build qualitative models for complex components has become essential to allow effective use of these tools. We have addressed the need to model complex electrical components by developing abstract representations for the behaviour to supplement the qualitative electrical simulation. This development has been carried out in two stages. In the first stage we provide the ability to include dependencies between the electrical activity in one part of a component and the (qualitative) resistance values in another. This approach is known as QCAT (Qualitative Circuit Analysis Tool), an early version of which is documented in [11] and has been implemented in the industrially used FMEA tool, Autosteve. The second stage (QCAT-SB) uses state based descriptions to allow more complex behaviour descriptions including temporal specifications. QCAT-SB will be included in the next release of Autosteve.


Title: Equivalence relations within the failure mode and effects analysis

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 1999 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Spangler, CS

Year: 1999

Abstract: The reliability and maintainability community has long sought ways to improve the value of the FMEA as a means to influence the final design during early development stages. In addition to eliminating unacceptable single-point failures, provisions for Fault Detection and Fault Isolation (FD/FI) provide the most significant areas where the design can be influenced by the FMEA. The most recent gains in this area have been process based. Bowles [5] inclusion of a functional FMEA prior to completion of the Preliminary Design moves the analysis to the beginning of the product development cycle to verify requirements prior to commencing with the detail design. This process change becomes even more significant when this initial analysis can be reused to verify the detail design. This paper examines the mathematical concept of equivalence relations and partitions within the FMEA to 1) Influence the FD/FI design, 2) Enable the reuse of functional analysis in the subsequent interface and piece part analyses, and 3) Improve the quality and cost of the analysis. Set algebra is applied to partition all failure modes and their consequences into disjoint subsets known as fault equivalence classes. Equivalence classes are created as a method for managing all failure mode consequences. Assessing the significance of undetected failure modes and the associated ambiguity in locating the manifested system anomaly requires the analyst to first identify what equivalency exists. When this equivalency is known early in the design development stages of a program, compensating provisions can be designed in or adjusted to achieve high degrees of maintainability. Knowledge of equivalence classes provides insight into the mechanisms by which failure modes affect a system. It causes the analyst to look for discriminators among failure modes within a given equivalence class to improve fault diagnosis of the system. Fault insertion testing is simplified by using equivalence classes to reduce or collapse the set of failure modes that must be inserted for testing. The analysis quality is improved and program costs curtailed by reducing rework due to change, inconsistencies and errors.


Title: Tolerance optimization in assembly stacks based on capable design

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART B-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MANUFACTURE

Author: Swift, KG; Raines, M; Booker, JD

Year: 1999

Abstract: There is probably no other design effort that can yield greater benefits for less cost than the careful analysis and assignment of tolerances. However, the proper assignment of tolerances is one of the least well understood activities in product engineering. The paper introduces a knowledge-based statistical approach to tolerance allocation, where a systematic analysis for estimating process capability levels at the design stage is used in conjunction with statistical methods for the optimization of tolerances in assembly stacks. The method takes into account failure severity through linkage with failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for the setting of realistic capability targets. The application of the method is fully illustrated using a case study from the automotive industry through the use of interactive software.


Title: Failure modes and effects analyses of potential ground movements at Golden Sunlight Mine

Source: TAILINGS AND MINE WASTE '99

Author: Miller, DJ

Year: 1999

Abstract: Failure modes and effects analyses, or FMEA, is a structured, systematic process for evaluating risks to the environment by categorizing both the likelihood for an identified failure mode to occur (failure mode likelihood categories), and the associated potential environmental impacts (consequences categories). This paper describes an application of FMEA that was used to evaluate environmental consequences of potential ground movements at the Golden Sunlight Mine in Montana The FMEA was done as part of an environmental impact statement (EIS). Prior to the EIS evaluations, the mine facilities (including plant structures, waste rock dumps, and one of two tailing impoundments) had been impacted by movements of massive, low-angle, planar landslides known as block slips. The block slips were subtle, ancient features that-had not been identified prior to mine development. Mining activities remobilized movements of the primary slide block in April, 1994. Movements were successfully halted later that same year by offloading waste dump materials near the head of the slide, and placing a buttress of waste dump materials near the toe. Other ground movements at the site included shallow surfcial landslides, structural foundation settlements, and waste dump slope failures. Some of these ground movement modes were associated with the block slip movements. The FMEA, in combination with comprehensive geotechnical analyses and professional judgement, provided a consistent methodology for categorizing the failure modes and evaluating risks associated with the complex ground movements and their interactions. The FMEA also provided a means to convey the risk analyses results in a concise tabular format, suitable for presentation in the EIS.


Title: MEG-Array (R) connector, the first Ball Grid Array connector

Source: 49TH ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS & TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE - 1999 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Moyer, TD; Kopec, JA

Year: 1999

Abstract: Improvements in chip technology drove the need for an easily applied, surface mountable connector set that had high density, high pin count, excellent electrical properties, and a low mating profile. FCI's solution was the industry's first Ball Grid Array (BGA) connector, the MEG-Array(R) connector. The key challenges faced during-development included both design and manufacturing issues. High density and low profile required new design concepts and extremely tight tolerances. Ball attach technology complicated the reliability aspects of the connector because there were now three interfaces (ball-to-tab, ball-to-pad, and the separable contact itself) to develop. Finally, the resulting design not only severely taxed the capabilities of the traditional manufacturing processes but also added new challenges dealing with the ball attach process itself. To deal with all these challenges FCI used a structured methodogy for both design and process development. "Virtual Engineering", which included mechanical, electrical, and process simulations, was used for the initial design. Extensive use of Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Design of Experiments (DOE) facilitated the concurrent design and process development phase. The manufacturing process scale-up phase was characterized by a commitment to total statistical process control and 100% automatic inspection as required to meet the stringent quality requirements. The end result was a very reliable connector developed in record time that met all customer requirements. This paper details the significant challenges outlined above and the extensive analytical effort to verify reliability and all performance goals. Application of the product to a board is also discussed.


Title: Analysis approach to reliability improvement

Source: INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS 1999

Author: Krasich, M

Year: 1999

Abstract: Current industry practices do not snow expenditure of resources for product reliability improvement after its design is complete. In the past it was the practice that the products were subjected to environmental and operational stimuli and, after experiencing a failure, the design or the failed part was improved, and the testing continued. The testing was carried out until a desired reliability level was achieved. Based on statistical analysis of the test results, conclusions were then made of the product reliability improvement and of its final reliability using one of the available reliability growth models. Besides the fact that the experienced failures were highly dependent on simulated operational environments and the sequence of their application so that the time scale of failure appearance may not at all be a realistic representative of reliability, the tests were lengthy and costly. Industry developments, with applied modern technology and very reliable products consequently lead to much higher reliability expectations. High competition, and short-term development and marketing of the products do not allow the luxury of dedicated reliability growth test processes. In addition, to verify high reliability requirements/goals, the tests may be extremely lengthy and cost prohibitive. Therefore, the emphasis on designing for reliability and improvement of reliability of design using analytical and special testing methods including design of experiments becomes a desired cost-effective practice. This paper presents the mathematical model for reaching the desired reliability goal by improving reliability from the initially estimated value with certain number of design changes and with their magnitude in terms of reliability gain. The paper also provides suggestions for analytical methods used for reliability assessment of both, electronics and mechanical devices, guide for the design of necessary evaluation testing, and mathematical tools for tracking of the achieved reliability. A selection of industry recommended techniques for reliability improvement are also included in this paper.


Title: Knowledge acquisition for failure diagnosis of hydraulic systems using system bond graph model

Source: BATH WORKSHOP ON POWER TRANSMISSION AND MOTION CONTROL (PTMC 99)

Author: Kohda, T; Inoue, K; Yamamoto, K

Year: 1999

Abstract: The deviation patterns are essential information for failure diagnosis and conventionally obtained through the FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis) usually performed by system analysts. This paper proposes an automatic acquisition of failure diagnosis logic in hydraulic systems using system bond graph models. Firstly, a system bond graph model (SBG) is developed from the design assumptions. A tree graph representing system state equations obtained from the SBG gives deviation pa,terns not only at the initial transient state, but also at the steady state. Based on the deviation patterns, the simplified diagnosis logic can be obtained that guarantee the fault distinguishability.


Title: Development of an automated technique for failure modes and effect analysis

Source: SAFETY AND RELIABILITY, VOLS 1 & 2

Author: Blanke, M; Borch, O; Allasia, G; Bagnoli, F

Year: 1999

Abstract: Advances in automation have provided integration of monitoring and control functions to enhance the operator's overview and ability to take remedy actions when faults occur. Automation in plant supervision is technically possible with integrated automation systems as platforms, but new design methods are needed to cope efficiently with the complexity and to ensure that the functionality of a supervisor is correct and consistent. In particular these methods are expected to significantly improve fault tolerance of the designed systems. The purpose of this work is to develop a software module implementing an automated technique for Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). This technique is based on the matrix formulation of FMEA for the investigation of failure propagation through a system. As main result, this technique will provide the design engineer with decision tables for fault handling that show how fault migration can be stopped.


Title: Lifetime analysis of a steam boiler in Hasselby Power Plant in Sweden

Source: CAPE '99: AGEING OF MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF LIFETIMES OF ENGINEERING PLANT

Author: Kiessling, L; Johansson, N

Year: 1999

Abstract: As a part of the ongoing program (Handbook of Lifetime Analysis of Power Plants (1)) in the Thermal Engineering Research Institute (Varmeforsk) in Stockholm, Sweden this paper presents results from a first risk analysis of a steam boiler i Hasselby energy plant located outside Stockholm, Sweden. In a second later part a testing program will be followed by a final lifetime analysis including economical and other risks for the components; this will be presented at a later occasion. The method that has been used and tested here and is frequently referred to as Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as described by C Fritz (2) and H Bjurstrom (3). FMEA has been used for selection of critical components in the boiler and for the most important factors, which influence a lifetime analysis (LTA) and ageing management of the boiler. Only the mechanical components in the furnace, the superheater, the economizer, the flue-gas channels and the main steam line have been included in the analysis. Techniques in the turbine, mills and external boiler equipment are excluded, as are electrical- and control components. The work has been performed through close collaboration between material specialists and operation staff from the plant and has been very successful. Interesting results have been achieved through the collaboration and it has been possible to include elements in the analysis such as personnel hazards and environment impacts from failures. The paper presents the conclusions and recommendations to be drawn from this analysis. FMEA used in the investigation was convenient and fulfilled the purpose of the investigation. Of forty eight components, eight were determined to be critical and have a high risk of failure. The steam cooler and the super-heated steam system had the highest risk evaluated.


Title: Durability assessment of building systems

Source: DURABILITY OF BUILDING MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS 8, VOLS 1-4, PROCEEDINGS

Author: Lair, J; Le Teno, JF; Boissier, D

Year: 1999

Abstract: Assessing the service life of building products is relevant for all building actors (insurers, manufacturers, building owners and architects). Indeed, the knowledge of building products service lives leads to a reduction of maintenance costs and environmental impact, and an improvement of safety. This paper deals with a methodological approach for durability assessment. The major steps are : Research of available durability data and their organization in a graph structure followed by the assessment of belief and plausibility distribution of service life. A Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, including a structural and a functional analysis in order to search all potential failures (weathering factors, product design and setting up). The proposed method is a multi-model and multi-scale approach; multi-model in order to adjust the model with our knowledge and our aim (modelling real life of building, but not a too complex and unusable model), multi-scale to take into account the links between the three geometric scales materials/products/building. Finally, it gives (1) a distribution of nominal service life, for normal weathering processes, with corresponding belief and plausibility degrees, (2) details on the design and setting up problems, on exceptional weathering phenomena, which could lead to a shorter service life.


Title: A reliability based maintenance policy; A case study

Source: COMPUTERS & INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Author: Abdul-Nour, G; Beaudoin, H; Ouellet, P; Rochette, R; Lambert, S

Year: 1998

Abstract: Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) incorporates sound guidance for managers who wish to attain high standards of maintenance at their operating plants. Since the amount and type of maintenance which is applied depend strongly on the machine or components age (DFR, CFR or IFR), on its replacement cost as well as on the cost and safety consequences of system failure, a careful analysis of the system components based on their reliability data should be done in order to optimize the maintenance program. This paper describes the methodology which was used at an aluminum plant in order to select critical machines and to develop an optimal maintenance policy based on reliability data of each machine, safety consequences of system failure, lead time and repair time, and components criticality. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


Title: Failure modes and effects analysis of complex engineering systems using functional models

Source: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN ENGINEERING

Author: Hawkins, PG; Woollons, DJ

Year: 1998

Abstract: A set of models developed by Chittaro for fault diagnosis is extended to represent more complex engineering systems. A novel methodology for qualitative reasoning about behaviour change has been developed for the purpose of failure modes and effects analysis to cope with complete and partial failure modes. The method is demonstrated on an electrically driven gear pump. A further extension is the ability to cope with control systems by distinguishing the function of two closed loop control schemes. Different types of failure of the control scheme can be identified by analysing three different responses of the faulty plant. This method is demonstrated on a manufactured aerospace component called a fuel-metering unit controlled by a negative feedback control scheme. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Limited. All rights reserved.


Title: Technology and human errors in image-guided surgeries

Source: SURGICAL-ASSIST SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS OF

Author: Jiang, ZW; Miao, S; Zamorano, L; Li, QH; Gong, JX; Diaz, F

Year: 1998

Abstract: Using image guidance for stereotactic surgery has been widely adopted in neurosurgery orthopedic surgery and other surgery operations. Careful precise and robust implementation of image-guidance can offer surgeon accurate intra-operative information that traditional techniques can nor reach. Weak design, careless utilization, and dilemma in quality assurance protocol may result in severe scenarios. It is because that introducing image guidance into the operating room involves high precise technologies, delicate instruments and sophisticated processes. These can offer precision as well as space for human errors. A method based on the "Failure modes & effects analysis" is introduced to systematically study human errors in the image-guided surgery; field. The paper presented the fundamental steps and architectures of the method. For better understanding of the method, a simple example is also provided Analyzing human errors with the "failure mode & effects analysis" benefits the development life cycle of the image-guided surgery system. It also helps for designing the clinical quality assurance process and the training courses for surgeons.


Title: Validation and the human element

Source: PDA JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Author: Kieffer, RG

Year: 1998

Abstract: Frequently the steps in the process which involve human intervention are the weak links in the process, the steps representing the highest risk. This is not due to lack of training or motivation of people, but to weaknesses ir? the design of the process and to the intrinsic error rate of manual operations. Quite often in validation work the human element is ignored while mechanical and technological aspects are studied in great detail. This article will include some examples about what we have learned about risk where human intervention is involved by using Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Process Reengineering methodologies, Furthermore, the implications for training and qualification of people in the validation context will be discussed.


Title: FMEA applied to cladding systems - reducing the risk of failure

Source: BUILDING RESEARCH AND INFORMATION

Author: Layzell, J; Ledbetter, S

Year: 1998

Abstract: Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a systematic and analytical quality planning tool for identifying and addressing what potentially could go wrong with a product or process. The project 'Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in the cladding industry' describes the FMEA technique, investigates failures of cladding on a system, component and process level, and maps the cladding supply chain and cladding-related decision making. The level of knowledge of failures and the fragmented industry structure prevents rigorous use of FMEA exemplified by other industries. However, a simplified form of FMEA can be performed based on the research findings to prioritize and inform decision-making and facilitate site inspection/supervision.


Title: The development of an FMEA methodology for rolling stock remanufacture and refurbishment

Source: TECHNOLOGY FOR BUSINESS NEEDS

Author: Parkinson, HJ; Thompson, G; Iwnicki, S

Year: 1998

Abstract: This paper discusses the remanufacture of equipment within the railway industry and definitions are given. ii systematic method to the planning and execution of equipment remanufacture is proposed based on a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), which enables critical systems to be identified, robust remanufacturing processes established and appropriate NDT methods selected. For optimal decision making in regard to remanufacture, cost has to be considered. An iterative approach is suggested which will link cost models, particularly life cycle costing (LCC) with the risk assessment from the FMEA. This will allow optimal strategies to be evaluated in terms of the market demands. A case study of an air-conditioning unit from a DMU is presented to illustrate the initial section of the method.


Title: Failure mode and effect analysis on ITER heat transfer systems

Source: FUSION ENGINEERING AND DESIGN

Author: Pinna, T; Caporali, R; Cambi, G; Burgazzi, L; Poucet, A; Porfiri, MT

Year: 1998

Abstract: The complexity of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) plant and the inventories of radioactive materials involved in its operation require a systematic approach to perform detailed safety analyses during the various stages of the project in order to demonstrate compliance with the safety requirements. The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) methodology has been chosen to perform the safety analysis at system level for ITER. The main purposes of the work are: to identify important accident initiators, to find out the possible consequences for the plant deriving from component failures, identify individual possible causes, identify mitigating features and systems, classify accident initiators in postulated initiating events (PIEs), define the deterministic analyses which allow the possible accident sequences to be quantified, both in terms of expected frequency and radiological consequences, and consequently, to ascertain the fulfillment of ITER safety requirements. This paper summarises the FMEA performed for the heat transfer systems (HTSs). (C) 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.


Title: Function-directed electrical design analysis

Source: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN ENGINEERING

Author: Price, CJ

Year: 1998

Abstract: Functional labels provide a simple, but very reusable way for defining the functionality of a system and for making use of that knowledge. Unlike more complex functional representation schemes, these labels can be efficiently linked to a behavioral simulator to interpret the simulation in a way that is meaningful to the user. They are also simple to specify, and highly reusable with different behavioral implementations of the system's functions. This claim has been substantiated by the regular use at several automotive manufacturers. The combination of functional labels and behavioral simulator can be employed for a variety of tasks - simulation, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), sneak circuit analysis, design verification, and presented in terms that are easily understood by them. The utility of functional labels is illustrated in this paper for the domain of car electrical systems, with links to a qualitative circuit simulator. In this domain, functional labels provide a powerful way of interpreting the behavior of the circuit simulator in terms an engineer can understand.


Title: Reliability analysis of airship a remote sensing system

Source: IMAGING SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY FOR REMOTE SENSING

Author: Qin, J

Year: 1998

Abstract: Airship Remote Sensing System (ARSS) for obtain the dynamic or real time images in the remote sensing of the catastrophe and the environment, is a mixed complex system. Its sensor platform is a remote control airship. The achievement of a remote sensing mission depends on a series of factors. For this reason, it is very important for us to analyze reliability of ARSS. In first place, the system model was simplified from multi-stage system to two-state system on the basis of the result of the failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and the Failure Tree failure mode effect and criticality analysis (FMECA). The failure tree was created after analyzing all factors and their interrelations. This failure tree inclouds four branches, e.g. engine subsystem, remote control subsystem, airship construction subsystem, flying metrology and climate subsystem. By way of failure tree analysis (FTA) and basic-events classing, the weak links were discovered. The results of test running shown no difference in comparison with theory analysis. In accordance with the above conclusions, a plan of the reliability growth and reliability maintenance were posed. System's reliability are raised from 89% to 92% with the reformation of the man-machine interactive interface, the augmentation of the secondary better-groupie and the secondary remote control equipment.


Title: Integration of fluid flow effects within a risk-based pipeline integrity management (PIM) process

Source: 1ST NORTH AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON MULTIPHASE TECHNOLOGY

Author: Richardson, D; McGovern, C

Year: 1998

Abstract: A quality Pipeline Integrity Management (PIM) process is a risk based, systematic process that identifies the controls required to maintain integrity. Through the application of a risk based PIM process, limited funds and resources can be deployed in the areas of highest risk to reduce the likelihood of internal corrosion failures. The process can easily be applied to any pipeline system from the very simple to the very complex. The failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) within the PIM process clearly identifies the pipeline function, operating envelopes, deterioration mechanisms, associated risks, and maintenance requirements. Pipeline maintenance controls identified within the PIM process are easily justified, as they are the result of a structured risk based analysis. At the heart of a successful PIM program is accurate characterization of the internal corrosion hazard profile. The Paper demonstrates how two-phase flow modelling data is utilized to identify the formation of detrimental fluid flow patterns contributing to corrosive environments in sour gas pipelines, including a description of the protective scale disruption processes that underlies the technical assessment of risk within the FMEA model. Three sour gas production pipeline case studies are presented involving different situations where flow is important for corrosion considerations.


Title: Risk management in NDT

Source: INSIGHT

Author: Thomas, D

Year: 1998

Abstract: Risk management involves the assessment of risks facing an organisation. Some risks can be avoided, what remains must be borne by the organization or transferred through insurance. NDT, however, is not about transferring risk, but ensuring that failure does not occur. The risk of failure and the catastrophic consequences that can result are greatly influenced by management. Lord Cullen pointed to poor management as an important contributory factor in the Piper Alpha disaster. So what can be done to avoid failure? Can ISO 9000 or NAMAS management systems reduce or eliminate the risk of failure? Can we go one step further and use TQM tools such as Poke-Yoke, FMEA, SPC and Zero Defects? Or is it true to say that all systems have a probability of failure that is traceable ultimately back to the human factor?.


Title: Web-based design tools

Source: ADVANCES IN MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY XII

Author: Huang, GQ; Mak, KL

Year: 1998

Abstract: Formal design methods and techniques such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Value Analysis (VA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) are, and should be, used as team tools. This paper proposes to exploit the Web technology to implement formal design tools on the Internet/Intranet. Team members can use standard browsers to access these services at different locations. In comparison with standalone computerised design tools, Web-based systems are effective in facilitating teamwork in product development.


Title: Failure modes & effects analysis (FMEA) of flip chip devices attached to printed wiring boards (PWB)

Source: TWENTY THIRD IEEE/CPMT INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM

Author: Kennedy, M

Year: 1998

Abstract: Assembly techniques using flip chip devices on PWB and ceramic have been available for several years. When Medtronic Micro-Rel decided to introduce this technology or change some of the design, component, or process parameters, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) proved to be a useful tool to identify any potential design and process related failure modes. Additional purposes of an FMEA are: to determine the effects of the failure modes. to determine the root cause of the failure modes. to prioritize actions by using a ranking system for the failure mode effects in terms of probability of occurrence of the failure mode, severity of the effect of the failure mode, and probability of detection of the failure mode through manufacturing. to identify, implement, and document corrective actions to address failure modes with rankings that are considered unacceptable. Although an FMEA may seem extremely time consuming or overwhelming the purpose of this paper is to address this large chore by dividing the process into smaller pieces for manageability. Additionally, this report will address a preliminary FMEA performed early in the evaluation stage of flip chip devices on PWB. Many of the initial inputs were based on available literature and findings from other companies. Many of the evaluations and designed experiments (DOE) performed were driven by the initial FMEA rankings. During the development 'stage, six DOEs were recorded and performed addressing various issues related to flip chip attachment. Areas reviewed included solder screening, reflow profiles of the flip chip dice, and underfill dispense parameters. The outputs from these DOEs allowed the engineers to perform less experiments and to get more from their evaluations. (Confirmation builds were used once all of the parameters were established.) Although many of the concerns found in literature searches were applicable, some items (such as underfill voiding) were found not to be as crucial a concern in this particular design. The FMEA was then reevaluated after all evaluations and qualification builds were performed. These findings were used to drive design rules and process parameters.


Title: A generic fault propagation modeling approach to on-line diagnosis and event correlation

Source: ON-LINE FAULT DETECTION AND SUPERVISION IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES 1998

Author: Stanley, GM; Vaidhyanathan, R

Year: 1998

Abstract: CDG (Causal Directed Graph) provides a methodology and framework for real-time fault management in large-scale systems, addressing the full life cycle of problem identification based on symptoms, diagnostic testing, and fault isolation, through recovery, as well as protecting the operator from "alarm flooding". It is based on generic fault propagation models, tied to an object-oriented domain representation and scalable algorithms. CDG combines the generality of FMEA models with on-line, asynchronous event correlation and diagnosis. The architecture of CDG is described and the modeling approach is discussed with examples. Event correlation and interactive diagnosis using CDG is illustrated through a nitric acid cooling system example. Copyright (C) 1998 IFAC.


Title: Let's put the "OP" back in "HAZOP"

Source: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE AND WORKSHOP ON RELIABILITY AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Author: Hendershot, DC; Post, RL; Valerio, PF; Vinson, JW; Lorenzo, DK

Year: 1998

Abstract: Hazard and operability (HAZOP) analysis has a well-deserved reputation for systematic and thorough evaluation, and it has become the tool of choice in the chemical and hydrocarbon processing industries for performing qualitative hazard/risk evaluations of processes. In principle, both operability and reliability considerations have been a part of the HAZOP methodology from its inception. Many of the immediate and measurable benefits of HAZOP studies arise from operability improvements. Before there were regulatory requirements, many companies easily justified process hazard analyses on the basis that the economic benefits of finding and correcting process weaknesses through HAZOP far outweighed the cost of the analysis. Unfortunately, in recent practice, regulatory compliance obligations and increased concern with major incident prevention have resulted in a deemphasis of the operability aspects of HAZOP in many organizations. At the same time, the maintenance and reliability groups in many companies have recognized the economic benefits of organized approaches to establishing maintenance programs. Techniques such as reliability centered maintenance (RCM), based on failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), have been implemented to improve plant reliability and maintenance cost-effectiveness. This can result in a duplication of effort by different groups in the same organization, arising from separate RCM and HAZOP studies. It is proposed that HAZOP studies be combined with RCM studies to increase efficiency and improve the quality of both reviews. One feature of the proposed technique is the use of "generic FMEAs" for common process equipment. An example of a generic FMEA for a centrifugal pump will be summarized.


Title: Development of best practices for integration and use of natural gas vehicle fuel systems

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1998 BUS OPERATIONS, TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE

Author: Sverdrup, GM; Herridge, JT

Year: 1998

Abstract: Approximately one year ago, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) awarded a twenty five-month long research program aimed at developing a set of recommended practices for integrating and using the on-board portions of natural gas fuel systems in medium, heavy-duty and transit natural gas vehicles. Motivation for this program stemmed from GRI's desire to enhance further successful growth in these particular market sectors. While it was recognized that much of the needed guideline information already existed within the industry, it was deemed important that this information 1. be better assembled and disseminated, 2. be given a strong total system perspective and 3. be more widely adopted by vehicle builders, component manufacturers, and vehicle users. To follow the successful pattern used in the development of SAE J2343 for LNG heavy trucks, the program was structured to use Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) as an early tool to help identify and rank order actual and potential problems. As of the date this paper was written, the FMEA work was well along, and attention was being shifted to 1. identifying current and candidate countermeasures and 2. drafting recommended practices for avoiding and mitigating the potential problems identified. The addition of Gas Technology Canada (GTC) and the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as co-sponsors of the program has permitted its scope to be enlarged to include: 1. School buses, 2. Special issue resolution topics for Canadian NGV builders and suppliers, 3. Special needs of California based NGV builders and suppliers, and 4. Enhancement of the planned electronic media products of this program. While this program is being led by Battelle, extensive involvement of members of the NGV industry in workshops and review of materials is being utilized as means of 1. assuring that the resultant best practice products are of a jointly developed nature and 2. fostering communication between key industry stakeholders which will facilitate broad downstream adoption and use of the resultant best practices. In support of furthering the important communication and outreach aspects of the program, APTA and the ATA have been incorporated into Battelle's program team. This paper is a progress report for the GRI/GTC/SCAQMD program. Included is a description of the work completed to-date, some highlights of the results already obtained, and an outline of the work remaining. While the overall program covers both transit vehicles and trucks, this paper will focus on the transit portion of the program.


Title: A conceptual framework for product safety and liability

Source: DECISION SCIENCES INSTITUTE 1998 PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1-3

Author: Dowlatshahi, S

Year: 1998

Abstract: This paper explores the role of product safety and liability in the early stages of product design in a concurrent engineering environment. Further, the paper presents a system approach to product safety, a conceptual framework for design for safety and liability, and a product safety program which covers the three safety techniques of Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). The example of a disc braking system is presented and discussed in order to explain test, and validate the model and methodology. The developmental aspects of product safety are considered and a Knowledge Based Management System (KBMS) is developed. Finally, the paper presents conclusions and an assessment of the results and provides additional perspectives.


Title: Risk-informed regulation of marine systems using FMEA

Source: PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT (PSAM 4), VOLS 1-4

Author: Wilcox, R

Year: 1998

Abstract: The marine industry is recognizing the powerful techniques that can be used to perform risk analysis (procedure for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication) of marine systems. One technique that has been incorporated in both national and international marine regulations is Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). This analysis assumes a failure mode occurs in a system/component through some failure mechanism; the effect of this failure is then evaluated. A risk ranking can be developed in a more detailed variant of FMEA called Failure Mode and Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA).


Title: Applications of some risk assessment techniques: Formal expert judgement and accident sequence precursors

Source: SAFETY SCIENCE

Author: Goossens, LHJ; Cooke, RM

Year: 1997

Abstract: Risk assessments are carried out as a support for decision making on major hazards activities. The risk assessments are explanatory in nature and are not aiming at predictions of accidents which might occur. Tn various areas a lot of experience has been gained with risk assessments, for which well known techniques (like FMEA, fault trees and so forth) are applied. In quantifying risks, the prior position is often a scarce amount of necessary data on component failures or specific phenomena. The decision to pick the 'right' numbers is therefore Limited. There is felt a need to collect data with other techniques as well. The paper describes two such techniques: (i) a formal expert judgement technique to establish quantitative subjective expert assessments on design and model parameters, and (ii) a system failure analysis technique (Accident Sequence Precursor Methodology) which uses operational evidence of system failures to derive the system failure probability of the system as a whole. For both techniques an example case is presented for illustration. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.


Title: Analysis for the reliability of the intrinsic base ion implantation of a 3 GHZ I(2)L bipolar process from the measure of integrated resistances: From the results, setting of rules for an expert system

Source: MICROELECTRONICS AND RELIABILITY

Author: Loheac, JL; Raoult, F; Bonnaud, O; Taurin, M

Year: 1997

Abstract: To avoid a shift of the process parameters during various steps of wafer manufacturing, it is important to monitor them, daily and quicker as possible. At parametric facility, testing devices of the wafer are electrically characterized to make a critical checking of the process. For the case of a 3 GHz bipolar technology, we have defined rules for the monitoring of the dose and of the energy of a critical ion implantation and for the control of the thickness variation of a thin LOGOS. The analysis is based on the measurement of three types of integrated resistances. Also, to write and to validate the rules, we did a process analysis with a tool called Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), which allowed us to predict the effects of these parameters on the electrical characteristics. Following this study, we realise a Design Of Experiment (DOE). From the results, and based on a simple process monitoring method, specific rules are written to be inserted in a technological expert system for the failure of the intrinsic base ion implantation during the fabrication process. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd


Title: Failure-mode and effects analysis in improving a drug distribution system

Source: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH-SYSTEM PHARMACY

Author: McNally, KM; Page, MA; Sunderland, VB

Year: 1997

Abstract: The medication error rate in an existing ward stock drug distribution system and in an alternative system developed after failure-mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was applied to the ward stock system was studied. In the ward stock system of a large teaching hospital in Western Australia, bulk drug packs were stored in cupboards on the wards, and drug products were transferred to drug trolleys before dose administration by nurses. A pharmacist used the disguised-observer technique to determine the error rate in the ward stock system for a medical ward and a surgical ward. The errors and each step in the system were studied by FMEA. A unit supply individual-patient dispensing (USIPD) system was formulated to respond to the failure modes identified. In this system, a five-day supply of medication was dispensed for each patient from a satellite pharmacy close to the ward. Medication charts were reviewed by a pharmacist, and drugs were dispensed in labeled vials that were placed in a locked drawer at the patient's bedside. The error rate under the USIPD system was determined. Problem areas in the ward stock system identified by FMEA included drug availability, review of orders, drug selection, patient-related issues, and use of nurses' time. The percentage of opportunities during which any error occurred was significantly lower under the USIPD system on both wards. FMEA was used to identify deficiencies in the ward stock system that led to medication errors in an Australian hospital. An alternative drug distribution system designed to address the problems identified was associated with fewer errors.


Title: Quantitative FMEA automation

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM - 1997 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Montgomery, TA; Marko, KA

Year: 1997

Abstract: By providing a structured approach for considering potential failures and their effects, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is an important process applied to the development of reliable and maintainable products (Refs. 2, 4). FMEA reports are used by design, test and diagnostic engineers, impacting products throughout their life cycle. FMEA automation promises to streamline the traditional (brainstorming) approach to performing an FMEA by aiding the FMEA reasoning process, helping to produce a report that is more timely, complete and consistent. Most of the published approaches to automating FMEA rely on qualitative simulators and produce a report that is most relevant early in the design cycle (Refs. 1, 5, 7). The software described here uses a quantitative simulator, producing results that are not only more accurate for designers, but are also more useful to test and diagnostics engineers. The result is a contribution to concurrent engineering efforts in the design, manufacture, and support of analog electronics that is not possible with tools based on qualitative simulators.


Title: Effective techniques of FMEA at each life-cycle stage

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM - 1997 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Onodera, K

Year: 1997

Abstract: The Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a widely used analytical tool. It is especially useful in the conduct of reliability, maintainability, and safety analyses. Such analyses are commonly used to identify failures of significant consequence and those affecting system performance. The author investigated about 100 FMEA applications. That investigation revealed that the FMEA technique is useful in virtually every stage of the modern industrial process. Although FMEAs were most frequently used in the initial design and development stages of a project, they were also of value in the manufacturing stage. In support of manufacturing, FMEAs contributed in deriving the optimum construction method and schedule. Even after construction of the plant, FMEAs were again found to add value in the analyses of day-to-day plant operations and maintenance activities, or the use stage. The continuous application of the FMEA process over the Life-cycle of a project is ensured by the preparation of the individual FMEA worksheets for each stage. Examples of such worksheets are presented and discussed in this paper FMEAs are evaluated by either of two methods: Criticality or Risk Priority Number (RPN). The Criticality method is used primarily at the design, development, and construction stages; whereas, the RPN method is favored at the manufacturing and use stages. The elements which comprise the Criticality and RPN method are also presented in this paper.


Title: From troubleshooting to process design: Closing the manufacturing loop

Source: CASE-BASED REASONING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Author: Price, CJ; Pegler, IS; Ratcliffe, MB; McManus, A

Year: 1997

Abstract: This paper describes the dual use of a case base for diagnosis and for improving the design of a manufacturing process. In the short term, the case base is used to provide past experience in dealing with similar problems during the manufacture of aluminum components. In the longer term, it is used to feed that experience into the design of the manufacturing process for new components. This is achieved by baring a case base of previous manufacturing process problems and solutions. For diagnosis, case base matching is done in a fairly straightforward manner. In order to use the cases in design analysis. the case information about process type and problems with a particular process is fed into a process failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), and provides details of possible problems and their likelihood.


Title: Exploration methods in business process re-engineering

Source: COMPUTERS IN INDUSTRY

Author: Rajala, M; Savolainen, T; Jagdev, H

Year: 1997

Abstract: Understanding the reasons of process variation is recognised as a key to the successful management of business processes. Various exploration methods give the prospective users a chance to tackle such complex problems by means of computer. This paper considers two key methodologies within the domain of exploration methods: simulation modelling and value analysis (VA). With worked-out examples, this paper shows, by using the techniques adopted from traditional manufacturing process control, how this problem can be tackled. For retrospective studies focusing to understand and manage internal process variation, statistical process control (SPC) charts together with the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) method is a powerful tool. For prospective studies, focusing to understand and manage the effects due to variability of customer needs, information generated in quality function deployment (QFD) analysis is suggested to be used. All information generated by studies can be used in simulations using Taguchi cross-product redesigns. When the object of VA is a business process instead of a product, the paper also describes how these methods can be applied to business process re-engineering (BPR). The creative problem solving power of VA is especially helpful in BPR. The small improvements can be achieved via the logical analysis and modelling methods but the radical breakthrough improvements require often creative problem solving in addition to modelling. Application of the methods is exposed through a business process example of Neste Advanced Power Systems Finland solar power systems manufacturing, using IDEFO models to be translated for simulation via coloured Petri nets, The conclusion of the paper is that the joined methodology offers a practical advantage for managing simulation studies needed in business process redesign. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.


Title: Reliability of surface-mount PPTC circuit protection devices

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM - 1997 PROCEEDINGS

Author: White, H; Grover, A

Year: 1997

Abstract: Accelerated life tests were used to estimate s-failure rates for PolySwitch polymer-based positive temperature coefficient (PPTC) devices with a surface-mount configuration. Electrical tests were done on a lot inspection basis on production parts, and results were pooled. Using an exponential model, the estimated failure rate from the pooled data is about .8 to 3.0 failures in time (FIT). Product reliability(1) is related to the effectiveness of FMEAs and process controls. Our experience in proliferating the use of failure modes effects analysis (FMEA) and statistical process control (SPC) is discussed. This includes the benefits, challenges, and lessons learned.


Title: Assessment of propane as a refrigerant in residential air-conditioning and heat pump applications

Source: REFRIGERANTS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

Author: Keller, FJ; Liang, HM; Farzad, M

Year: 1997

Abstract: The performance, cost, and environmental impact of propane systems were evaluated in two typical residential air-conditioning and heat pump applications: ducted air-to-air split systems and window room air conditioners. Flammability mitigation strategies were analyzed and the corresponding safety modifications were used for each product type. R-22 systems were used for the baseline designs. R-410A and propane designs were compared to the baseline systems. The total equivalent warming impacts (TEWI;) reduction per unit of investment was the primary comparison criterion for each equipment category. The evaluation results showed that for a high-efficiency (12+ seasonal energy efficiency ratio [SEER]) unitary split system, the R-410A system had the best TEWI reduction per unit of investment. For the low-efficiency (9 energy-efficiency ratio [EER]) window room air conditioners, the propane systems hold the greatest TEWI reduction per unit of investment. The investment estimation did not include the capital required for manufacturing, shipping, and storage. Whether or not propane will become the refrigerant of choice for these two systems ultimately will be determined by final safety standards, production costs, and the Local market acceptance of flammable refrigerants. There are other risks and concerns not discussed in this paper that must be addressed before propane could be considered a safe refrigerant for the applications investigated here. A comprehensive risk and hazard assessment of flammable refrigerant systems is needed to develop appropriate safety standards and risk mitigation methods. Extensive revision of manufacturing processes will be required. Additional safety precautions will be needed in packaging, storage, shipping, service, and other steps in the value chain. Further research will be necessary to provide sufficient evidence that propane can be safely applied in the products discussed in this paper. It is important to note that the cost adder for propane safety modifications identified may be conservative and incomplete pending results of a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and hazard analysis. The authors also caution that the results of this study should not arbitrarily be extended to different applications since each application will have differing optimum environmental solutions.


Title: Analysis approach to reliability improvement

Source: INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, 1997 PROCEEDINGS - DESIGN, TEST, AND EVALUATION - PRODUCT RELIABILITY

Author: Krasich, M

Year: 1997

Abstract: Evaluation of reliability growth testing of an already designed item used to be a basic traditional approach to reliability improvement. There are many reasons why testing may not be a desirable vehicle such as cost, test length for high reliability, tight delivery schedules, small sample sizes for desired confidence, costly design changes, and the like. Analysis approach evolves from the standard reliability tasks that are normally done on a project such as FMECA or FMEA and Worst Case Analysis. Stress/strength analysis performed for each identified failure mode provides information on their likelihood and determines the need for their mitigation through design changes. In that manner, likely failures are mitigated before completion of the design, and the initial product mean time to failure is increased. If and when the same system is later subjected to a reliability growth program, the growth rate does not have to be aggressively high, or the test duration does not have to be extensive. The analysis method thus provides faster and cheaper way to achieve reliability improvement.


Title: Potential failures of personal computers hardware: distribution and analysis

Source: FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE: MANAGING ENTERPRISES - STAKEHOLDERS, ENGINEERING, LOGISTICS, AND ACHIEVEMENT (ME-SELA'97)

Author: Papic, L; Kukic, M; Wright, DT

Year: 1997

Abstract: In this paper, the potential failures and their causes, during the life cycle of the personal computers (PC), are considered. The study analysis distributions of the failures (errors) appearances, considering to the dynamic appearance of the new generations of the processors, peripheral devices and software. The data from five years experience have been described, and they can be very useful in choice of the configuration and optimization of the PC with the accent on the velocity performances or the reliability performances. On the basis of those data, the failure effect analysis PC was made by FMEA matrix-form method.


Title: A methodology for risk assessment of functional specification of software systems using colored Petri nets

Source: FOURTH INTERNATIONAL SOFTWARE METRICS SYMPOSIUM, PROCEEDINGS

Author: Ammar, HH; Nikzadeh, T; Dugan, JB

Year: 1997

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment in complex real-time software systems at the early stages of development, namely the analysis/design phase. A heuristic risk assessment technique is described based on Colored Petri Nets (CPN) Models. The technique uses complexity metrics and severity measures in developing a heuristic risk factor from software functional specifications. The objective of risk assessment is to classify the software components according to their relative importance in terms of such factors as severity and complexity. Both traditional static and dynamic complexity measures are supported. Concurrency complexity, is presented as a new dynamic complexity metric. This metric measures the added dynamic complexity due to concurrency in the system. Severity analysis is conducted using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). The methodology presented here is applied to a large scale software system as presented in a companion paper in [1].


Title: Combining functional and structural reasoning for safety analysis of electrical designs

Source: KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING REVIEW

Author: Price, CJ; Snooke, N; Pugh, DR; Hunt, JE; Wilson, MS

Year: 1997

Abstract: Increasing complexity of design in automotive electrical systems has been paralleled by increased demands for analysis of the safety and reliability aspects of those designs. Such demands can place a great burden on the engineers charged with carrying out the analysis. This paper describes how the intended functions of a circuit design can be combined with a qualitative model of the electrical circuit that fulfils the functions, and used to analyse the safety of the design. FLAME, an automated failure mode and effects analysis system based on these techniques, is described in detail. FLAME has been developed over several years, and is capable of composing an FMEA report for many different electrical subsystems. The paper also addresses the issue of how the use of functional and structural reasoning can be extended to sneak circuit analysis and fault tree analysis.


Title: Designing for quality - An integrated approach for simultaneous quality engineering

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART B-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MANUFACTURE

Author: Braunsperger, M

Year: 1996

Abstract: Automoble industry practice has shown that it is not sufficient merely to apply familiar quality control methods such as FMEA (failure mode and effects analysis) or QFD (quality function deployment), to introduce development process (DP) systems or to adopt project management procedures when an improvement in product quality is required. More than this has to be done: the product development procedure must be better nl ranged and made capable of achieving preventive quality assurance. This paper presents an all-areas quality assurance concept as drawn up in the body development area of the BMW AG company and implemented successfully in the course of several pilot projects prior to general introduction. It is intended to provide stimuli and encouragement for similar measures to be taken in other areas, for example in the machinery construction industry.


Title: Environmental impact analysis for the main accidental sequences of Ignitor

Source: FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Author: Carpignano, A; Francabandiera, S; Vella, R; Zucchetti, M

Year: 1996

Abstract: A safety analysis study has been applied to the Ignitor machine using Probabilistic Safety assessment. The main initiating events have been identified, and accident sequences have been studied by means of traditional methods such as Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Trees (FT) and Event Trees (ET). The consequences of the radioactive environmental releases have been assessed in terms of Effective Dose Equivalent (EDEs) to the Most Exposed individuals (MEI) of the chosen site, by means of a population dose code. Results point out the low enviromental impact of the machine.


Title: Space shuttle program risk management

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 1996 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Fragola, JR

Year: 1996

Abstract:


Title: Using change notification for maintaining an FMEA database

Source: ADVANCES IN CONCURRENT ENGINEERING: CE96

Author: Kramer, A; Peter, G

Year: 1996

Abstract: This paper outlines the importance of maintaining a failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and points out the relevance of this process for concurrent engineering. To maintain an FMEA means twice: first, to preserve or even improve the correctness of the data and second, to keep it up to date. A notification policy is proposed that provides support for conducting the necessary changes and notifies other persons to whom these changes may be of interest. Several knowledge bases support this process. They are briefly introduced and their contribution is described.


Title: FMEA/CIL implementation for the space shuttle new turbopumps

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 1996 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Littlefield, ML

Year: 1996

Abstract:


Title: Using fuzzy cognitive maps as a system model for failure modes and effects analysis

Source: INFORMATION SCIENCES

Author: Pelaez, CE; Bowles, JB

Year: 1996

Abstract: This paper explores the application of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) to Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). FMEAs are used in reliability and safety evaluations of complex systems to determine the effects of component failures on the system operation. FCMs use a digraph to show cause and effect relationships between concepts; thus, they can represent the causal relationships needed for the FMEA and provide a new strategy for predicting failure effects in a complex system.


Title: Dynamic analysis of qualitative circuits for failure mode and effects analysis

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 1996 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Pugh, DR; Snooke, N

Year: 1996

Abstract:


Title: Facility risk review as a means to addressing existing risks during the life cycle of a process unit, operation or facility

Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING

Author: Schlechter, WPG

Year: 1996

Abstract: In today's process industry environment, it is becoming more and more important for companies to manage the risks associated with their plants. Amongst others, some reasons for this are that 1) Process Safety is featuring high on the agenda of Trade Unions; 2) that Management is coming under increased pressure to provide a safe workplace; 3) that Companies are trying to survive in the current competitive environment by adopting the ''zero accidents'' ideal; 4) because the effects of accidents that do occur are becoming more devastating due to increased inventories and the exotic nature of products and 5) the fact that overseas companies are looking at safety and conservation track records before choosing business partners or considering trade agreements. Regulatory directives such as OHSA'S (Occupational Health and Safety Act, Act 85 of 1993) Major Hazard Installation Regulation in conjunction with SABS 0228 (hazard group 1)(1) is another newcomer entering the playing fields of South African Companies and is in the future going to have a serious impact on Company philosophies and policies. In this Regulations ''Risk Assessment'' is defined as ''a planned programme to reduce, to remove, and to control a major incident''. This can be interpreted as having the meaning/objective to involve some type of Risk Management programme which will co-ordinate inter alia the risk assessment function. Also defined is ''Major Incident'', which reads: ''It is an occurrence (including in particular, a major emission, fire or explosion) resulting from uncontrolled developments in the course of an industrial activity, leading to a serious danger to persons, whether immediate or delayed, inside or outside the installation, or to the environment, and involving one or more dangerous substance'' To address this problem of managing the risks in a facility/plant/operation is no mean feat. Cost factors, time constraints, manpower availability, legislatory pressures and uncertainty on the most applicable risk assessment method to use, are just some of the problems facing management. Adding to this dilemma is the fact that the reviewing specialist has to choose from a variety of risk assessment methods that have varying degrees of complexity, cost and applicability.(2) Past experience has however shown that Hazard and Operability Analysis (Hazop), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis and Event Tree Analysis are the most widely used and well accepted. Choosing the right assessment method which will provide the information management needs to address the facility's risks is often the most difficult part in the whole assessment process. With this paper we are providing an overview of such a risk assessment method, namely Facility Risk Review (FRR) which uses a combination of techniques of a qualitative and quantitative nature. These methods are similar to those currently being used with great success in the risk assessment process at the facilities of the Sasol Group of Companies. These methods are in use from the initial conceptual design stage of any project or change up to the stage where the facility has been in operation for many years.


Title: Knowledge-based support of system analysis for the analysis of failure modes and effects

Source: ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Author: Wirth, R; Berthold, B; Kramer, A; Peter, G

Year: 1996

Abstract: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is an important method of preventive quality assurance However, even 30 years after its introduction in the aerospace industry and despite more than 10 years of experience in using this method in development, FMEA is still a challenge for many companies. This paper analyses the problems with the conventional way of carrying out an FMEA. It is argued that a knowledge-based approach to FMEA can alleviate most of these problems. The solution chosen in the WIFA project is presented. WIFA employs various knowledge bases to support complete and precise descriptions of processes and products, and to facilitate the later reuse of the knowledge collected during an FMEA. The essential features of these knowledge bases, and their use in FMEA, are described. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd


Title: FAILURE MODE EFFECTS ANALYSIS - A PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF FUNCTIONAL-MODELING

Source: APPLIED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Author: HUNT, JE; PUGH, DR; PRICE, CJ

Year: 1995

Abstract: Knowledge of how a device works is important for many tasks. Yet, systems that attempt to base their reasoning on the use of a functional model fail to capture such knowledge or only capture it implicitly. Instead they rely solely on the knowledge of the purpose of the system and provide causal explanations of how this purpose is achieved. This type of model only represents knowledge of what the system is for, not how the system works. However, engineers also rely on knowledge of how a device works to complete tasks successfully. One such task is failure mode effects analysis (FMEA). FMEA involves investigation and assessment of the effects of all possible failure modes on a system. This process is both tedious and time consuming, and it requires detailed expert knowledge of the system under consideration, including information about the structure of the system and its purpose or function. This means that any attempt to automate the whole of the FMEA process must involve both the structural and functional levels. This paper reviews the FMEA process and considers the requirements of an automated FMEA system. It outlines a prototype FMEA system and presents a functional modeling system that relies on the results produced by an underlying structural simulator.


Title: The application of quality costing to engineering changes

Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATERIALS & PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY

Author: Machowski, F; Dale, BG

Year: 1995

Abstract: This paper reports the findings of a quality costing exercise undertaken on the engineering change procedure of an organisation involved in the manufacture of telecommunications equipment. It was established that the average administration cost per change note was pound 1000, and that the yearly non-conformance costs of the engineering change procedure were estimated to be between pound 168,000 and pound 210,000. A number of actions have been taken to reduce the costs involved with engineering changes, including the introduction of a new change-note awareness programme for engineers, and the use and application of both design and process failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).


Title: STUDY ON RELIABILITY MODELING OF A HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR SYSTEM

Source: QUALITY AND RELIABILITY ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL

Author: MAJUMDAR, SK

Year: 1995

Abstract: The failure patterns of a well-known brand of a hydraulic excavator system used in different environments were modelled adequately with an NHPP (non-homogeneous Poisson process) having time-dependent log-linear peril rate functions. Using the fitted model, the reliability of the excavator system was estimated in different environments (cement plant, coal mine, iron ore mine, etc.). The system reliability was found to be very poor during the initial phase of operation and gradually improved with an increase in cumulative operating hours regardless of change in environment. Notwithstanding this general trend, the system reliability differed significantly in different environments for any given duration of operation and was particularly very poor in cement plants. With the help of the FMEA technique, high risk prone failure modes of the excavator system of the given model were identified and appropriate corrective measures were initiated. The failure patterns of the modified excavator system changed regardless of environment, so much so that an HPP (homogeneous Poisson process) model with constant peril rate could be fitted adequately to characterize the failure pattern of the system. The system reliability improved considerably in the initial phase of operation since start-up.


Title: ASSEMBLY-LEVEL RELIABILITY - A METHODOLOGY FOR EFFECTIVE MANUFACTURING OF IC PACKAGES

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY

Author: NGUYEN, LT; FINNELL, JR; SINGH, KM

Year: 1995

Abstract: This paper discusses the general methodology of assembly level reliability (ALR) as part of a corporate effort at designing reliability into the whole assembly process of integrated circuit (IC) packages. Semiconductor packages with assembly-induced defects sometimes do escape detection due to a variety of reasons. Trying to eliminate this problem by approaching it piecemeal may result only in single process optimization, but does not guarantee full assembly line balancing for error-free production. ALR is a systematic 4-prong approach which uses a combination of techniques for synergistic effects. 1) Problems of immediate needs have to be addressed and contained, 2) The proper steps must then be taken to ensure that similar issues do not resurface. 3) Design-for-manufacturability principles must be applied; eg, the design of the package can be simplified to reduce the number of assembly steps, increase throughput, and cut cost. 4) Qualification methodologies have to be revisited. Less expensive but well-characterized test chips can be introduced in lieu of actual devices. Accelerated testing with a good understanding of the failure mechanisms facilitates faster product qualification to ensure time-to-market advantage. Together with these more cost-effective qualification techniques, the proper reliability-monitoring features must be installed. Only then can the true vision of ALR be accomplished, viz, ensuring recognition, by both customers and competitors, as a Company that continuously manufactures defect-free parts.


Title: APPLYING FUZZY COGNITIVE-MAPS KNOWLEDGE-REPRESENTATION TO FAILURE MODES EFFECTS ANALYSIS

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM - 1995 PROCEEDINGS

Author: PELAEZ, CE; BOWLES, JB

Year: 1995

Abstract:


Title: THE FLAME SYSTEM - AUTOMATING ELECTRICAL FAILURE MODE & EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA)

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM - 1995 PROCEEDINGS

Author: PRICE, CJ; PUGH, DR; WILSON, MS; SNOOKE, N

Year: 1995

Abstract:


Title: MODEL-BASED CONDITION MONITORING APPLIED TO A LARGE-SCALE INDUSTRIAL STEEL MILL (REPRINTED FROM CONDITION MONITORING 94)

Source: INSIGHT

Author: THOMAS, P; KERRIDGE, SR; SLADE, AJ

Year: 1995

Abstract: The aim of the IRAS(1) project is to develop fast, robust tools for reliability risk analysis and real-time fault location, based on existing condition monitoring techniques, in complex systems. These tools will have a low threshold of expertise and costs, thus encouraging small as well as large companies to perform reliability analysis on their production. To date Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Real-Time Fault Location (RTFL) have mostly been considered independently, whereas the aim of lRAS is to integrate the tools into a single environment. it should be noted, however that all these algorithms require knowledge about fault initiation within the system and fault propagation through the system, and thus the combination of these techniques reduces the overall complexity and therefore effort required. The IRAS research project concentrates on a generic solution using interactive model building which will allow RTFL, FMEA, FTA to be carried our on a model of a system at arbitrary levels of detail. The system will be used on-line with signals from existing condition monitoring equipment and sensors to allow RTFL by Fault Tree Synthesis. IRAS will also run off-line, for example, in a design environment to produce FMEA. This paper describes the model building aspects of lRAS facilitated by a Graphical User Interface (GUI), with particular reference to the underlying data structures used for the generic analysis techniques for fault and condition monitoring.


Title: DESIGN SIMULATION TOOL TO IMPROVE PRODUCT RELIABILITY

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM - 1995 PROCEEDINGS

Author: YATES, WD; BEAMAN, DM

Year: 1995

Abstract:


Title: SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS OF WELL-CONTROL EQUIPMENT

Source: SPE DRILLING & COMPLETION

Author: FOWLER, JH; ROCHE, JR

Year: 1994

Abstract: Two techniques are used for reliability analysis of a blowout preventer (BOP) and a hydraulic control system. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) examines each part and the consequences of its malfunction. Fault tree analysis (FTA) traces undesired events to their causes. Reliability calculations and data sources are addressed.


Title: THE GAPT MODEL - 4 APPROACHES TO THE APPLICATION OF DESIGN TOOLS

Source: JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING DESIGN

Author: HOVMARK, S; NORELL, M

Year: 1994

Abstract: The GAPT model describes the application of design tools such as design for assembly (DFA), failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and quality function deployment (QFD). According to the GAPT model, design tools can be used on four different levels: guidelines; analysis of product features; product reviewing; and team-building. These four levels result-in the order given-in increasingly extensive consequences for the product development work. The implementation of the DFA method has been followed in three product development projects for two years. Designers, production engineers and project leaders were interviewed before, during and after the implementation. The findings demonstrate that the DFA method can be used for four different purposes, corresponding to the levels of the GAPT model. On the team-building level, the application of the method contributed to more cooperation between designers and production engineers, and better communication. Conditions and outcomes when using the DFA method are discussed with regard to the GAPT model.


Title: FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA) SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT IN A SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENT

Source: 1994 ADVANCED SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING CONFERENCE AND WORKSHOP - ASMC '94 PROCEEDINGS

Author: WHITCOMB, R; RIOUX, M

Year: 1994

Abstract:


Title: ON ESTABLISHMENT OF I/O TABLES IN AUTOMATION OF A FAULT TREE SYNTHESIS

Source: RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY

Author: CHENG, YL; WEI, HC; YUAN, J

Year: 1993

Abstract: A method is presented to model the functional or operational behavior of each unit by (1) executing a failure mode and effect analysis and then determining states of the unit, (2) classifying the deviation of each variable of the unit into finite levels and (3) determining the marginal contribution of each in-variable to each out-variable of the unit for each state. Such results are summarized in a form called the I/O table. After testing and standardization, units and their corresponding I/O tables will be saved in a database to avoid redundant work on this modeling. The fault tree is essentially synthesized in terms of a set of mini-trees, each of which can be obtained from one of the I/O tables. The logic consistency of a fault tree synthesis depends largely on that of the I/O tables, and its efficiency largely depends on such a database of I/O tables being efficiently used. The I/O table originates from an idea by earlier workers, but is both mathematically rigorous and more illustrative from an engineering viewpoint. A comprehensive example is given to show how a mini-tree can be derived in terms of an I/O table.


Title: VALIDATING THE SAFETY OF EMBEDDED REAL-TIME CONTROL-SYSTEMS USING FMEA

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM : 1993 PROCEEDINGS

Author: GODDARD, PL

Year: 1993

Abstract:


Title: DATABASE DESIGN FOR FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM : 1993 PROCEEDINGS

Author: KUKKAL, P; BOWLES, JB; BONNELL, RD

Year: 1993

Abstract:


Title: DEGRADED STATES VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1993 SUMMER COMPUTER SIMULATION CONFERENCE

Author: KUNKEL, RW; BURDESHAW, MD

Year: 1993

Abstract:


Title: QUALITATIVELY MODELING THE EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT FAULTS

Source: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN ENGINEERING

Author: LEE, MH; ORMSBY, ART

Year: 1993

Abstract: This paper presents a new method for the qualitative analysis of electrical circuit behaviour. This paper shows that a qualitative representation of electrical resistance provides a good intuitive model for reasoning about gross electrical effects due to connectivity faults. The motivation is to produce tools to assist engineers in the identification and analysis of circuit failures that have safety implications. This includes work in hazard analysis, safety-critical systems, and failure mode effects analysis (FMEA). The analysis algorithms efficiently locate state changes in circuits and assign qualitative symbols for voltage and current flow to all components. The input, DELTAr, is a list which specifies qualitative resistance changes between the nodes of a previously defined circuit and the output is a pair, (P(a), P(d)), of sets of activated and deactivated paths, identifying the components that have changed state. The system has a layered priority approach precisely in keeping with failure mode analysis tasks and has been successfully tested in real applications.


Title: FUNCTIONAL REASONING IN A FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA) EXPERT-SYSTEM

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM : 1993 PROCEEDINGS

Author: RUSSOMANNO, DJ; BONNELL, RD; BOWLES, JB

Year: 1993

Abstract:


Title: A COMMUNICATIONS-BASED TECHNIQUE FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY DESIGN TEAM MANAGEMENT

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT

Author: SAFOUTIN, MJ; THURSTON, DL

Year: 1993

Abstract: Many design failures are attributable to commonly understood mechanisms, suggesting that they are not due to a real lack of expertise within an interdisciplinary design team but rather to communication errors at key decision points. We present a technique for interdisciplinary design team management which focuses on information processing and communication between team members. A cognitive model of communication-related failure mechanisms of design groups is developed. Strategies for defining and assigning subtasks among individuals or subgroups which are based on the communications model are described. A technique for evaluating the expected effectiveness of a design team configuration is presented. The cognitive model and task definition and assignment strategies are integrated into a tool which is traditionally used to evaluate only the physical design artifact itself, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA). By determining communication failure mechanisms and how they can affect the design artifact, we are able to develop strategies which minimize their impact and an analytic tool to determine design team effectiveness. An illustrative application to the problem of design of a program for computer-assisted instruction is presented.


Title: COMBINING SNEAK CIRCUIT ANALYSIS AND FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM : 1993 PROCEEDINGS

Author: SAVAKOOR, DS; BOWLES, JB; BONNELL, RD

Year: 1993

Abstract:


Title: USING CAUSAL REASONING FOR AUTOMATED FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA)

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM : 1992 PROCEEDINGS

Author: BELL, D; COX, L; JACKSON, S; SCHAEFER, P

Year: 1992

Abstract: The growth of automated engineering analysis tools has been explosive. All of the major CAD/CAE platform manufacturers have assembled an array of tools to support the engineering analysis activity. These tools generally concentrate on the classical mathematical engineering analyses. We have developed a tool that automates the reasoning portion of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). It is built around a flexible causal reasoning module that has been adapted to the FMEA procedure. The approach and software architecture have been proven. A prototype tool has been created and successfully passed a test and evaluation program. We are expanding the operational capability and adapting the tool to various CAD/CAE platforms.


Title: SUBMARINE PIPELINE AUTOMATIC REPAIR SYSTEM - AN APPROACH TO THE MISSION AVAILABILITY ASSESSMENT

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM : 1992 PROCEEDINGS

Author: CAPUTO, G; IANNELLA, C; DELUCA, F

Year: 1992

Abstract: This paper presents the methodology followed to evaluate mission availability of a remotely controlled submarine system designed to repair damaged pipelines laying in deep waters. The goal of the analysis has been to identify the technical and operational solutions, with respect mainly to the Logistic Support System design, to guarantee operational availability thereby minimizing delays. To this purpose, the FMEA and Fault Tree analysis technique for reliability assessment of each subsystems have been supplemented by a Event Tree Analysis performed through a computer package (ADMIRA). All sequences of failure and/or success for the whole system have been analyzed during the whole operation steps. This analysis has allowed an estimate of the delay for each possible system state. The analysis performed has shown that the Event Tree approach is a very adequate tool to handle situations where failures occurrence and dependencies among different events have to be taken into account. Of course this problem could be handled as well with conventional methods as FTA, though it would require complex and skilled manipulations of the many "trees". The FMEA/FTA method has been limited to specific analysis of subsystems whose states are considered independent from other subsystems states, thou obtaining failure probabilities that are inserted at the appropriate nodes of a decision tree. The inductive reasoning has permitted to follow system behaviour and to identify all possible output states. Such representation of the system permits: to evaluate the probability distribution of each state in which the global mission has been subdivided; to evaluate the probability-consequence curves for a number of parameters of interest (time delay, costs, ecc.), by associating a value representing the parameter itself to each state. In this study such parameter has been the time delay, so deriving a delay distribution for each module operation. Such delay distribution as well as meteorological statistics data correlated to the area of operation have been used to perform a Monte Carlo simulation. This allowed an assessment of the distribution of mission duration as a function of the area of operation, the type of support vessel used and the logistic support system chosen both at ground level and on board. The whole analysis has led to improved design, operator skills and training as well as support system definition.


Title: FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS - BIBLIOGRAPHY

Source: MICROELECTRONICS AND RELIABILITY

Author: DHILLON, BS

Year: 1992

Abstract: This paper presents a brief introduction and an extensive list of selective references on failure modes and effects analysis concept.


Title: FMEA - A DIGRAP AND MATRIX APPROACH

Source: RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY

Author: GANDHI, OP; AGRAWAL, VP

Year: 1992

Abstract: This paper presents a method for failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of mechanical and hydraulic systems based on a digraph and matrix approach. The method takes into account structural as well as functional interaction of the system. This is desirable as failures in these systems are not independent. A failure mode and effects digraph, derived from the structure of the system, models the effects of failure modes of the system and consists of nodes, subnodes and edges. For efficient computer processing, matrices are defined to represent the digraph. A function (VCM-F(me) or VPF-F(me)) characteristic of the system failure mode and effects is obtained from the matrix and this aids in the detailed analysis leading to the identification of various structural components of failure mode and effects. In addition, the number of tests for failure mode and effects are derived. An index I(fme), a measure of failure mode and effects of the system, is obtained using VPF-F(me). The methodology is applicable not only at the design stage but during the operation stage also.


Title: A SMART FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS PACKAGE

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM : 1992 PROCEEDINGS

Author: KARAZAITRI, C; KELLER, AZ; FLEMING, PV

Year: 1992

Abstract: A methodology combining the benefits of matrix FMEA and the Risk Priority Number (RPN) technique is presented in this paper. The matrix approach is improved to provide an organised and traceable analysis from the piece part failure mode through all indenture levels to system level failure effects. Firstly, a single synthesized matrix capable of modeling an entire system and storing all individual item matrices in a compact and efficient manner is developed. Secondly, the methodology, presented in an earlier paper, based on the probabilistic combination of RPNs is improved further. The RPN methodology is widely used in British and European rail and automotive industries. An RPN is calculated for every cause of failure by multiplying together Severity, Occurrence and Detection ratings (values between 1 and 10). The probabilistic approach is used to calculate Local and Global Priority Indices which reflect the importance of an event relating to the indenture level under consideration and to the entire system respectively. The matrix and the Priority Indices calculations have been incorporated in a computer program implemented on an IBM PC. One of the main features of the program is an interactive and intelligent browsing facility whereby an event can be traced horizontally or vertically from piece parts to system level and vice versa. The browsing facility can be used as a tool for identifying different levels of ambiguity for fault isolation, developing maintenance diagnostic charts and procedures and formulating replacement level criteria. The methodology presented is demonstrated by application to an illustrative example.


Title: KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION AND STRUCTURING FOR A REAL-TIME EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MONITORING A BUTADIENE EXTRACTION SYSTEM

Source: COMPUTERS & CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Author: MARTINEZ, E; BELTRAMINI, L; LEONE, H; RUIZ, CA; HUETE, E

Year: 1992

Abstract: A real-time expert system for monitoring a butadiene purification process it has been developed using ONSPEC(TM) data acquisition and data processing capabilities. In this paper, the monitoring activities are focused on the two core columns: an extractive distillation column and a solvent stripping column working together in a highly integrated manner through material recycling and energy recovery. The paper emphasizes the steps followed during knowledge elicitation and organization, as well as the interrelation with the expert during these processes. The knowledge elicitation methodology has been mostly devised in a top-down style using HAZOP (HAZard and OPerability analysis), CCA (Cause and Consequence Analysis) and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) techniques. These methodologies provide an efficient means for motivating the experts to think aloud, from a more abstract to a more detailed level of process state understanding, about operational problems and actions or recommendations to restore control and performance. The knowledge acquired has been chunked into sets of rules which are coordinated by a core chunk using a "token-ring" style. This architecture proved to be successful for working in a real-time environment and from the point of view of the expert system expansion.


Title: A BLACKBOARD MODEL OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM : 1992 PROCEEDINGS

Author: RUSSOMANNO, DJ; BONNELL, RD; BOWLES, JB

Year: 1992

Abstract: The design of an expert system to assist in performing a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) (Ref. 12) is approached from a knowledge-use level perspective to provide a thorough understanding of the problem and insight into the knowledge and expertise needed to automate the FMEA process. The blackboard model is a conceptual model that provides the organizational principles required for the design of an expert system without actually specifying its realization. In the blackboard model of an intelligent FMEA, the system is functionally decomposed into a set of knowledge sources, each containing the knowledge associated with a subfunction of the FMEA process. The conceptual model derived can be used to evaluate attempts to automate the FMEA process, and it can serve as the foundation for further research into automating the FMEA process. An example is presented illustrating the interaction among the knowledge sources in the blackboard model to construct a FMEA for a domestic hot water heater.


Title: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STANDARD FOR SAFETY-RELATED SOLID-STATE CONTROLS FOR HOUSEHOLD ELECTRIC RANGES, UL-858A

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS

Author: STEINKE, M

Year: 1992

Abstract: Solid-state controls are now routinely employed to control safety-related functions in household electric ranges, ovens, and counter-mounted cooktops. Solid-state controls are generally more sensitive to physical and electrical environmental conditions than their electro-mechanical counterparts, and traditional test methods are inadequate to properly evaluate the reliability of solid-state devices. The Standard for Safety-Related Solid-State Controls for Household Electric Ranges (UL 858A) was developed to address the unique properties of solid-state controls and covers oven temperature regulating, temperature limiting, self-cleaning (pyrolytic) oven door lock, and cooktop element control applications. UL 858A is concerned only with a control's safety or protection functions. This paper presents an overview of the requirements in UL 858A, with an emphasis on applications. A "typical" solid-state control is followed through several phases of its safety evaluation using UL 858A and its companion Standards UL 244A and UL 873. The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) portion of the investigation is discussed in detail, touching on each of the concerns that form the basis of the reliability investigation. The demonstrated test method (DTM) and environmental stress tests are also discussed. This paper also includes an overview of the new requirements in the Standard for Household Electric Ranges (UL 858), which are applied to complete appliances employing solid-state controls, including mechanical endurance tests on membrane switch keyboard assemblies, environmental stress tests on the complete appliance, and shorted-thermostat abnormal operation tests.


Title: INVESTIGATION OF A FILTER EXPLOSION

Source: JOURNAL OF LOSS PREVENTION IN THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES

Author: ARENDT, JS; LORENZO, DK

Year: 1991

Abstract: At about 10 o'clock on a summer morning in 1987, an industrial filter used to purify an electrolytic plating solution exploded at a printed wiring board manufacturing plant. An investigation team used the failure modes and effects analysis technique to identify potential failures that could have caused the explosion and to reconstruct the most probable sequence of events that led to the accident. This paper describes the investigation and its results.


Title: R-AND-M AND SUPPORTABILITY ANALYSIS INTEGRATION INTO CONCEPTUAL AND PRELIMINARY WEAPON SYSTEM-DESIGN PHASES

Source: 1991 PROCEEDINGS : ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM

Author: BORDELON, BA

Year: 1991

Abstract: Increasing Department of Defense (DoD) emphasis on lowered support structure costs for future weapon systems is challenging defense contractors to incorporate Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability (RM&S) analysis techniques throughout every phase of design. Two projects under way at General Dynamics' Fort Worth Division (GD/FWD) are responding to this challenge through the development and integration of RM&S analysis software tools for the preliminary design stages. This paper discusses the development efforts and strategies at GD/FWD for preliminary-level design/RM&S analysis integration and describes the analysis tools currently in use and those planned for the near future. The aim of the first project is to automate and integrate analysis algorithms into GD/FWD's ACADS (Advanced Computer Aided Design System), which is the software used in the preliminary weapon system design stage. The algorithms integrated thus far include RM&S checklists, NATO shelter and aircraft carrier compatibility analysis, motion simulation, and accessibility analysis. Enhancements in process are baseline comparative analysis, preliminary RM&S parameter estimations, and support equipment requirements assessments. These tools are structured such that designers can quickly assimilate the analysis results and perform trade studies on a concurrent basis with the traditional performance assessments when design lines are most easily modified. The second project's objective is to design and prototype an Integrated Product Development (IPD) workstation to be used by RM&S engineers on a number of advanced weapon system programs. This workstation incorporates Computer Aided Design (CAD) drawing file interfaces and RM&S analysis tools in a concurrent engineering environment. The CAD interfaces allow analysts to interactively view design files on-screen, eliminating the need for paper drawings. An interfaces to the ACADS software exists currently, and Postscript and IGES file translators will be added in the future. Analysis tools currently available include Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) forms, a Total Quality Management (TQM)/Quality Functional Deployment (QFD) House of Quality chart generator, and testability checklists for electronic designs. Additional capabilities will be developed and integrated into the IPD workstation prototype as required. The objectives of these projects are responsive to the DoD's Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (CALS) RAMCAD initiative. This paper discusses the accomplishments and future goals as well as the benefits to be realized from these two activities.


Title: AN OVERVIEW OF PROCESS HAZARD EVALUATION TECHNIQUES

Source: AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION JOURNAL

Author: GRESSEL, MG; GIDEON, JA

Year: 1991

Abstract: Since the 1985 release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, which killed thousands, the chemical industry has begun to use process hazard analysis techniques more widely to protect the public from catastrophic chemical releases. These techniques can provide a systematic method for evaluating a system design to ensure that it operates as intended, help identify process areas that may result in the release of a hazardous chemical, and help suggest modifications to improve process safety. Eight different techniques are discussed, with some simple examples of how they might be applied. These techniques include checklists, "what if" analysis, safety audits and reviews, preliminary hazard analysis (PHA), failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), event tree analysis (ETA), and hazard and operability studies (HAZOP). The techniques vary in sophistication and scope, and no single one will always be the best. These techniques can also provide the industrial hygienist with the tools needed to protect both workers and the community from both major and small-scale chemical releases. A typical industrial hygiene evaluation of a facility would normally include air sampling. If the air sampling does detect a specific hazardous substance, the source will probably be a routine or continous emission. However, air sampling will not be able to identify or predict the location of a nonroutine emission reliably. By incorporating these techniques with typical evaluations, however, industrial hygienists can proactively help reduce the hazards to the workers they serve.


Title: HOW WE PUT RELIABILITY TOOLS INTO THE HANDS OF DESIGNERS

Source: 1991 PROCEEDINGS : ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM

Author: JACKSON, T

Year: 1991

Abstract: This paper describes the managerial issues encountered during the development of FRATOOLS, a new computerized methodology for performing failure rate analysis. FRATOOLS was developed inhouse because a tool was needed for performing failure rate analysis in a concurrent engineering environment. No suitable commercial software or shareware (Ref. 1) could be found which adequately supports Concurrent Engineering. A number of commercial failure rate analysis programs were evaluated, but each was found to require the skills of an experienced reliability engineer for effective utilization. FRATOOLS consists of several stand-alone programs integrated together to work as a single software package. These tools were successfully used by Designers to analyze the F18 Radar Upgrade (RUG) System. The FRATOOLS methodology fully complies with the methods contained in Mil-Hdbk-217E. Some of the novel elements of FRATOOLS include the use of "smart" software for automating the decision making process, capability to compute the failure rates for advanced technology devices (Ref. 2) which are not covered in Mil-Hdbk-217E, and integrating the methodology with the design process in a manner which fully supports concurrency in the design of radar systems.


Title: AN IMPROVED FMEA METHODOLOGY

Source: 1991 PROCEEDINGS : ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM

Author: KARAZAITRI, C; KELLER, AZ; BARODY, I; FLEMING, PV

Year: 1991

Abstract: This paper deals with the application and use of process and design FMEA in the British rail and automotive industries. Guidelines from BS.5760 (Part 3) (Ref. 6), which have wide use in the UK, are reviewed, and associated problem areas discussed. These guidelines are based on Risk Priority Numbers (RPN's) which are calculated for every recorded cause of failure by multiplying severity, occurrence, and detection ratings. A deficiency that exists however in these guidelines is that they do not address themselves to the computation of RPN's for all modes of failure for each item and module of the system of interest to the analyst. A methodology based on probability theory is developed to calculate RPN's for every recorded failure cause. The probabilistic approach presented is extended to calculate Priority Indices for every recorded failure mode (FMPI), component (CPI) and finally for the total system (SPI). In this way, all calculated indices can be systematically compared on a rational basis as they are expressed in terms of a common probabilistic scale. The methodology presented also introduces a new idea of Ordered Matrix FMEA where all qualitative and quantitative information recorded is stored in a pictorial and convenient way. The probabilistic and matrix approaches have been incorporated in a computer program implemented on an IBM PC. The program developed is used to identify efficiently all potential causes of failure. An illustrative example of the use of the above method is given.


Title: QUALITY ASSURANCE OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED HOT-TOOL WELDING FOR MASS-PRODUCTION

Source: POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE

Author: POTENTE, H; NATROP, J

Year: 1991

Abstract: The hot-tool welding process is commonly used for welding plastics, but high seam quality can be obtained only by optimizing weld parameters. Because of demand for better quality, the importance of quality control is increasing. At present, quality control is mainly performed by inspecting the end product, resulting in high scrap rates. An effective quality control system must therefore be able to recognize errors as they occur during the manufacturing process. For this, an FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis) should be performed prior to mass production, and statistical quality control should be implemented during and after the process. This paper describes a quality control system for computer controlled hot-tool welding that is based on an understanding of the physics of the process.


Title: IMPROVING MANUFACTURING RELIABILITY IN IC PACKAGE ASSEMBLY USING THE FMEA TECHNIQUE

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS HYBRIDS AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Author: PRASAD, S

Year: 1991

Abstract: Potential failure mode and effect analysis FMEA technique has been successfully used in both aerospace and automobile industries for enhancing the assembly manufacturing reliability of the product. Only recently, is the FMEA technique being used in the IC assembly manufacturing. The unprecedented package related failure of a microchip in a computer, space or in an automobile could have dire consequences. The FMEA technique was developed to give the engineer clear control over such failures before they reach the unwary customer. The packaging of an IC chip either as a single component or as a multichip module involves: designing a package, selecting appropriate materials, choosing the assembly processes, and selecting the proper equipment. The final product cost, reliability, and customer satisfaction is highly dependent on the compatibility between and quality level achieved in each of the above mentioned variables. This paper presents the basic FMEA technique as applied to IC assembly and shows how the technique is useful for complex package assembly and multichip module assembly. The use of FMEA for improving the manufacturability and manufacturing reliability of packages by a systematic and quantified analysis of the package design and process is also discussed.


Title: AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR PREPARING FMECAS

Source: 1991 PROCEEDINGS : ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM

Author: SEXTON, RD

Year: 1991

Abstract: This paper addresses some of the practical problems associated with the application of formal, MIL-STD-1629, Failure Modes and Effects Analyses, and proposes an alternative, cost-saving methodology. Although the technique is fast in application, the technique allows engineers to influence design decisions, using FMEA studies, as the design progresses. The technique follows the spirit of the MIL standard, rather than its letter, and overcomes what is seen intuitively as one of the major shortcomings of the Standard, since a single failure can effectively only disrupt one system function. The availability of commercial software will undoubtedly spread the methods quickly. The methods described here have already rapidly gained acceptance and wide application in the United Kingdom.


Title: DESK-TOP COMPUTER DATABASE TECHNIQUE FOR INTEGRATED R-AND-M ANALYSIS

Source: 1990 PROCEEDINGS : ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM

Author: JOHNSON, ML

Year: 1990

Abstract: As a discipline, we are progressing towards the integration of product assurance engineering into the design process. One criteria of success is the ability to share a common database. This paper presents a simple desk top approach that uses the design's indented bill of materials as its foundation. The relational database structures presented supports the typical reliability and maintainability analysis tasks. The paper covers: The idented bill of materials Reliability prediction - parts count technique Reliability prediction - stress analysis technique per MIL-HDBK-217E Failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) Maintainability prediction Program parts selection list (PPSL) and non-standard part approval request (NSPAR) generation. The techniques are developed to promote understanding of the concepts so that extension to a fully integrated solution can be visualized. The techniques are generic but the examples are specific, and may be used as a cookbook.


Title: MODEL-OA WIND TURBINE GENERATOR - FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS

Source: 1990 PROCEEDINGS : ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM

Author: KLEIN, WE; LALI, VR

Year: 1990

Abstract: This report presents the results of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) conducted for the Wind Turbine Generators. The FMEA was performed for the functional modes of each system, subsystem, or component. The single-point failures were eliminated for most of the systems. The blade system was the only exception. The qualitative probability of a blade separating was estimated at Level D-remote. Many changes were made to the hardware as a result of this analysis. The most significant change was the addition of the safety system. Operational experience and need to improve machine availability have resulted in subsequent changes to the various systems which are also reflected in this FMEA.


Title: COMPUTER-AIDED FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC-CIRCUITS

Source: MICROELECTRONICS AND RELIABILITY

Author: LEHTELA, M

Year: 1990

Abstract:


Title: CONTINUITY AND ELECTRICAL SAFETY OF LOW-VOLTAGE SYSTEMS

Source: ELETTROTECNICA

Author: MORETTI, A

Year: 1990

Abstract:


Title: RATIONAL DECISION-MAKING - STRUCTURING OF DESIGN MEETINGS

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT

Author: VLIEGEN, HJW; VANMAL, HH

Year: 1990

Abstract:


Title: ENSURING INSTRUMENT RELIABILITY WITHOUT OVERKILL - WHERE USERS DRAW THE LINE

Source: INTECH

Author: BAUR, PS

Year: 1986

Abstract:


Title: THE RELIABILITY OF MAGNETRONS FOR MICROWAVE-OVENS

Source: JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE POWER AND ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY

Author: KITAGAWA, K; KANUMA, Y; OGURO, T; HARADA, A

Year: 1986

Abstract:


Title: BOOLEAN-ALGEBRA METHOD TO CALCULATE NETWORK SYSTEM RELIABILITY INDEXES IN TERMS OF A PROPOSED FMEA

Source: RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY

Author: YUAN, J; CHOU, SB

Year: 1986

Abstract:


Title: SAFETY IMPLICATIONS OF CONTROL-SYSTEMS

Source: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN

Author: STONE, RS; MCBRIDE, AF

Year: 1985

Abstract:


Title: A STRATEGY TO ESTABLISH A RELIABILITY MODEL WITH DEPENDENT COMPONENTS THROUGH FMEA

Source: RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY

Author: YUAN, J

Year: 1985

Abstract:


Title: COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF SUBSTATION ARRANGEMENTS

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY

Author: LANNES, WJ

Year: 1982

Abstract:


Title: MAINTAINABILITY APPLICATIONS USING THE MATRIX FMEA TECHNIQUE

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY

Author: HERRIN, SA

Year: 1981

Abstract:


Title: RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF SOLAR PHOTO-VOLTAIC POWER-SYSTEMS

Source: SOLAR CELLS

Author: STEMBER, LH

Year: 1981

Abstract:


Title: HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE - AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH

Source: PROCEEDINGS ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM

Author: BUNCE, WL

Year: 1980

Abstract:


Title: DIGITAL SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - DESIGN-EVALUATION

Source: PROCEEDINGS ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM

Author: CONLEY, GA

Year: 1980

Abstract:


Title: MODIFIED AEROSPACE R AND QA METHOD FOR WIND TURBINES

Source: PROCEEDINGS ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM

Author: KLEIN, WE

Year: 1980

Abstract:


Title: SAFETY ANALYSIS OF AN ADVANCED ENERGY SYSTEM FACILITY

Source: PROCEEDINGS ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM

Author: LANCE, JR; MUTONE, GA; BJORO, EF

Year: 1980

Abstract:


Title: SOFTWARE FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY

Author: REIFER, DJ

Year: 1979

Abstract:


Title: COMPUTERIZED APPROACH FOR MATRIX-FORM FMEA

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY

Author: LEGG, JM

Year: 1978

Abstract:


Title: STATISTICAL-MODEL FOR A FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATION TO COMPUTER FAULT-TRACING

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY

Author: OHLEF, H; BINROTH, W; HABOUSH, R

Year: 1978

Abstract:


Title: FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS AS A DESIGN TOOL FOR NUCLEAR SAFETY SYSTEMS

Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS

Author: TASHJIAN, BM

Year: 1975

Abstract:

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