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  2006


Title: When DRC ends, DFM begins

Source: MICROLITHOGRAPHY WORLD

Author: Balasinski, A

Year: 2006

Abstract:


Title: Sensemaking of patient safety risks and hazards

Source: HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH

Author: Battles, JB; Dixon, NM; Borotkanics, RJ; Rabin-Fastmen, B; Kaplan, HS

Year: 2006

Abstract: In order for organizations to become learning organizations, they must make sense of their environment and learn from safety events. Sensemaking, as described by Weick (1995), literally means making sense of events. The ultimate goal of sensemaking is to build the understanding that can inform and direct actions to eliminate risk and hazards that are a threat to patient safety. True sensemaking in patient safety must use both retrospective and prospective approach to learning. Sensemaking is as an essential part of the design process leading to risk informed design. Sensemaking serves as a conceptual framework to bring together well established approaches to assessment of risk and hazards: (1) at the single event level using root cause analysis (RCA), (2) at the processes level using failure modes effects analysis (FMEA) and (3) at the system level using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The results of these separate or combined approaches are most effective when end users in conversation-based meetings add their expertise and knowledge to the data produced by the RCA, FMEA, and/or PRA in order to make sense of the risks and hazards. Without ownership engendered by such conversations, the possibility of effective action to eliminate or minimize them is greatly reduced.


Title: A Multi Attribute Utility Theory Approach to FMECA implementation in the food industry

Source: Safety and Reliability for Managing Risk, Vols 1-3

Author: Bertolini, A; Bevilacqua, A

Year: 2006

Abstract: The present paper describes a methodological approach for a failure criticality analysis applied to an Italian food firm that produces Prosciutto di Parma (R) jam. The study aims at identifying the most relevant failures of the jam production plant so that to implement maintenance management system based on the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) principles. In a first step the technological production cycle for Prosciutto di Parma (R) jam has been analyzed, focusing on the core operations, which relate to the jam salt cycle. A Failure Modes Effect Analysis (FMEA) has afterwards been performed so that to identify the jam production plant potential failures. The criticality analysis is then carried out according to three different approaches: the classical analysis that define the Risk Priority Number (RPN) multiplying failure probability, severity and detectability (signed RPNI); a weighted mean approach that evaluated the RPN taking also into account the failure impact on operation and management parameters such as manpower safety, product quality, production loss and plant maintainability (signed RPNII) and lastly a Multi Attribute Utility Approach (MAUT) (signed RPNIII). To this extent the use of Generalized Polynomial Decomposable Multiple Attribute Utility Functions (GPDMAUF) is proposed to determine the RPN, describing the application of the technique to the jam salt cycle. The failure criticality ranking obtained through the different methods is lastly discussed, stressing the versatility of GPDMAUF approach.


Title: Failure mode and effect analysis application for the safety and reliability analysis of a thermal-hydraulic passive system

Source: NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY

Author: Burgazzi, L

Year: 2006

Abstract: The inclusion of passive safety-related systems within the advanced reactor design claims high system availability and reliability. A detailed system and safety analysis applying the failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) approach is required as a primary step for the development of a methodology aimed at the reliability assessment of passive systems. The present study concerns thermal-hydraulic passive systems that are designed for decay heat removal and rely on natural circulation that foresee a,heat exchanger immersed in a cooling pool. The main purposes of the work are to identify important accident initiators, find out the possible consequences to the plant deriving from component malfunctions, individuate possible causes, identify mitigating features and systems, and classify accident initiators in initiating events of accident sequences. A qualitative overview of accident sequences could be derived from the FMEA tables looking at consequences' description and preventive and corrective. actions. Failure probabilistic evaluations are included as well to point out the probabilities and frequencies to have the plant in fault and/or unavailability conditions during passive system operation, therefore ensuring a complete set of initiating events of reactor accident sequences. Finally, important feedback to the design activities will derive from the FMEA study performed for safety assessment purposes. An important lesson elicited from the analysis is that measures against common-cause failures can reduce significantly the probability of failure of the system.


Title: Safety assessment of a lithium target

Source: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN

Author: Burgazzi, L; Roberta, F; Barbara, G

Year: 2006

Abstract: This paper addresses the safety assessment of the lithium target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) through evaluating the most important risk factors related to system operation and verifying the fulfillment of the safety criteria. The hazard assessment is based on using a well-structured Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) procedure by detailing on a component-by-component basis all the possible failure modes and identifying their effects on the plant. Additionally, a systems analysis, applying the fault tree technique, is performed in order to evaluate, from a probabilistic standpoint, all the relevant and possible failures of each component required for safe system operation and assessing the unavailability of the lithium target system. The last task includes the thermal-hydraulic transient analysis of the target lithium loop, including operational and accident transients. A lithium target loop model is developed, using the RELAP5/Mod3.2 thermal-hydraulic code, which has been modified to include specific features of IFMIF itself. The main conclusions are that target safety is fulfilled, the hazards associated with lithium operation are confined within the IFMIF security boundaries, the environmental impact is negligible, and the plant responds to the simulated transients by being able to reach steady conditions in a safety situation. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Title: Probabilistic safety analysis of an accelerator - Lithium target based experimental facility

Source: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN

Author: Burgazzi, L

Year: 2006

Abstract: The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) is aimed to provide an intense neutron source by a high current deuteron linear accelerator and a high-speed lithium flow target, for testing candidate materials for future fusion reactors. An activity aimed at the safety assessment of the IFMIF plant as a whole has been carried out applying the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to identify and quantify in terms of expected frequencies, the dominant accident sequences related to the plant operation, and define the reference accident scenarios to be further analyzed through deterministic transient analysis, in order to verify the fulfilment of the safety criteria. The accident sequences have been modeled through the event tree technique, which allows identifying all possible combinations of success or failure of the safety systems in responding to a selection of initiating events. The identification of accident initiators, provided by the failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) procedure, is followed by the systems analysis based on fault tree technique, for the unavailability assessment of the safety systems: finally the accident sequence scenarios are assessed by RISK SPECTRUM software. The study has allowed for the development of all accident sequences resulting from selected initiators relative to IFMIF plant and their grouping within sequence families, denoted as plant damage states, on account of the plant response and expected consequences. The frequency assigned to each family sequence is the sum of the contributors relative to all sequences ending into that particular plant state. The outcome of the analysis shows that IFMIF plant is quite safe and presents no significant hazard to the environment: in fact all the sequences implying potential undesired effects as radioactive release to the outside, show very low frequencies, well below the limit for credible accident (1.0E-6/year). In addition, due to the novelty of the design and the large spreading assigned to the failure parameter probabilistic distributions (data utilized in the probabilistic analysis of this one of a kind plant are largely of a generic nature), an uncertainty analysis has been performed to add credit to the model quantification and to assess if the sequences have been correctly evaluated on the probability standpoint. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Title: CENPES II project reliability analysis

Source: Safety and Reliability for Managing Risk, Vols 1-3

Author: Calixto, E

Year: 2006

Abstract: The CENPES II is a new research center which will give support to high technology implementation and development in onshore and offshore subjects as oil exploration, production and refine in Petrobras Company. In this research center will be located a Petrobras data center (CIPD) which requires a high availability level. The CENPES II Project reliability analysis has as a mean objective to find out if CIPD and some importants laboratories will have a 99,99% of availability in 200000 hours as required in project. Therefore, some subsystem as electrical sub-system, natural gas, diesel oil, cooling and cold water will be analysed in terms of reliability, availability and maintainability to provide the required availability to CIPD and Laboratories. This Reliability analysis will take into consideration the subsystems and each critical equipment with it's failure and repair time to certified the availability required for this project. Buy this way, a failure and repair analysis, FMEA, diagram block and modeling, optimization and efficiency cost analysis will be done in this study case.


Title: Failure analysis-assisted FMEA

Source: MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY

Author: Cassanelli, G; Mura, G; Fantini, F; Vanzi, M; Plano, B

Year: 2006

Abstract: In this paper, ordinary FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) was applied during the design phase of an electric motor control system for vehicle HVAC (HeatingNentilation/Air Conditioning). The analysis of the field data from the second year forces to review FMEA. The corrective actions, planned on the basis of the sole failure mode, as usual in FMEA, proved to be inadequate and Failure Analysis was performed to understand the failure mechanism of the indicted component and integrate. New proper corrective actions were devised and successfully implemented.


Title: Analysis of zone and pump configurations in simulated moving bed purification of insulin

Source: AICHE JOURNAL

Author: Chin, CY; Xie, Y; Alford, JS; Wang, NHL

Year: 2006

Abstract: The effects of pump failures in nine zone and pump configurations for the size-exclusion simulated moving bed purification of insulin are analyzed. Simulations based on verified intrinsic parameters are used to understand the dynamic wave phenomena. This understanding helps determine the best zone and pump configuration, determine the time window to recover from the degraded state, and formulate contingency responses to failures. The results show that the open-loop three-zone simulated moving bed is the best. It is more reliable, and has higher productivity and reduced residence time of the high molecular weight impurities. A disadvantage of the three-zone is the higher solvent consumption. In the recommended configuration: desorbent pump failure is critical and dual redundant pumps are recommended; feed pump failure is marginal and results in diluted product; and zone H pump failure is critical-the time window for corrective action is half a step-time. Zone pumps are recommended instead of outlet pumps because they do not result in stationary phase collapse from high pressure drop and allow higher productivity in pressure-limited systems. (c) 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.


Title: Anticipating risk for human subjects participating in clinical research: Application of failure mode and effects analysis

Source: CANCER INVESTIGATION

Author: Cody, RJ

Year: 2006

Abstract: Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a method applied in various industries to anticipate and mitigate risk. This methodology can be more systematically applied to the protection of human subjects in research. The purpose of FMEA is simple: prevent problems before they occur. By applying FMEA process analysis to the elements of a specific research protocol, the failure severity, occurrence, and detection rates can be estimated for calculation of a "risk priority number" (RPN). Methods can then be identified to reduce the RPN to levels where the risk/benefit ratio favors human subject benefit, to a greater magnitude than existed in the pre-analysis risk profile. At the very least, the approach provides a checklist of issues that can be individualized for specific research protocols or human subject populations.


Title: Risk analysis and diagnosis modelling for online control of process

Source: Safety and Reliability for Managing Risk, Vols 1-3

Author: Desinde, A; Flaus, JM; Ploix, S

Year: 2006

Abstract: Currently safety systems are designed to warn operators when a critical fault happens. Unfortunately, this information may come too late and operators are then not able to correct the potential failures. In order to prevent system from critical faults and failure, this paper proposes a method to predict the risks based on a logical diagnosis approach and a prognosis of the consequences of the detected faults. Using the DX diagnosis approach, some information are added so that physically impossible diagnoses are avoided and the faults differently isolated. Then, after an FMEA analysis of the system and its representation with the fault tree method, the consequences of the faults detected are propagated into the fault tree so that risks are prognosticated. Finally, once these risks determined, a second analysis of the fault tree gives the elements of the system to monitor in order to avoid, if possible, the previous risks.


Title: Reliability evaluation of the power supply of an electrical power net for safety-relevant applications

Source: RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY

Author: Dominguez-Garcia, AD; Kassakian, JG; Schindall, JE

Year: 2006

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a methodology for the dependability analysis of new automotive safety-relevant systems. With the introduction of safety-relevant electronic systems in cars, it is necessary to carry out a thorough dependability analysis of those systems to fully understand and quantify the failure mechanisms in order to improve the design. Several system level FMEAs are used to identify the different failure modes of the system and, a Markov model is constructed to quantify their probability of occurrence. A new power net architecture with application to new safety-relevant automotive systems, such as Steer-by-Wire or Brake-by-Wire, is used as a case study. For these safety-relevant loads, loss of electric power supply means loss of control of the vehicle. It is, therefore, necessary and critical to develop a highly dependable power net to ensure power to these loads under all circumstances. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Title: Safety analysis of DEH system based on fuzzy theory and evidential reasoning

Source: Progress in Safety Science and Technology, Vol 6, Pts A and B

Author: Dong, YL; Gu, YJ; He, CB; Li, YQ

Year: 2006

Abstract: Aiming at the problem that the steam turbine digital electro-hydraulic control (DEH) system is complex and can not evaluate its safety precisely, a safety analysis method based on fuzzy set theory and evidential reasoning is used. Though FMEA analysis, the main failure modes are obtained, and their three risk parameters-failure likelihood, consequence severity and failure consequence probability, are used to analyze the failure event based on fuzzy set theory. Then the degrees of every failure modes representing the uncertainty in safety evaluation can be deduced, and be synthesized using evidential reasoning to obtain the safety evaluation of the system. It is shown by the instance that the method is feasible and effective, and the evaluation result is in harmony with actual safety condition of the DEH system.


Title: A dynamic sampling scheme for GPS integrity assessment

Source: AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL

Author: Feng, S; Ochieng, W; Walsh, D; Ioannides, R

Year: 2006

Abstract: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is already being used for certain aviation applications and some safety critical air traffic services will be based oil GPS. These air traffic services Must achieve allowable levels of safety before they can be accepted. For this to occur, GPS based navigation systems must achieve a defined level of performance specified in terms of accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability. This must be determined by various analysis techniques including failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and integrity assessment. Because of the high percentile requirements placed on integrity (as the parameter most directly related safety), it is unfeasible to measure system performance by demonstration (field trial). Realistic simulation informed by some field experience is usually employed. However, the current simulation-based approaches for receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) performance assessment have a number of weaknesses including the use of coarse (large) spatial and temporal sampling intervals, loose definitions of error and geometric correlations, a lack of sampling of all geometries and the inability to account for critical points due to uncorrelated factors. This paper proposes a dynamic sampling method that takes account of these weaknesses, identifying dynamically only the required points for integrity performance assessment. Comprehensive simulations carried out to test the proposed approach for a single point, an area, and a non-precise approach (NPA) flight path to Gatwick airport in the United Kingdom show that the method can be effective in capturing all the points enabling a robust and reliable assessment of system integrity.


Title: F(I)MEA-technique of Web Services analysis and dependability ensuring

Source: Rigorous Development of Complex Fault-Tolerant Systems

Author: Gorbenko, A; Kharchenko, V; Tarasyuk, O; Furmanov, A

Year: 2006

Abstract: Dependability analysis of the Web Services (WSs), disclosure of possible failure modes and their effects are open problems. This paper gives results of the Web Services dependability analysis using standardized FMEA(Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) technique and its proposed modification IMEA- (Intrusion Modes and Effects Analysis) technique. Obtained results of FMEA-technique application were used for determining the necessary means of error recovery, fault prevention, fault-tolerance ensuring and fault removal. Systematization and analysis of WS intrusions and means of intrusion-tolerance were fulfilled by use of IMEA-technique. We also propose the architectures of the fault and intrusion-tolerant Web Services based on the components diversity and dynamical reconfiguration as well as discuss principles and results of dependable and secure Web Services development and deployment by use of F(I)MEA-technique and multiversion approach.


Title: The accidental risk assessment methodology for industries (ARAMIS)/layer of protection analysis (LOPA) methodology: A step forward towards convergent practices in risk assessment?

Source: JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Author: Gowland, R

Year: 2006

Abstract: In the last ten years, layer of protection analysis (LOPA) emerged as a simplified form of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The European Commission funded project Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the context of the Seveso 2 Directive (ARAMIS) has recently been completed. ARAMIS has several modules which give a consistent simplified approach to risk assessment which does not approach the complexity or expense of full QRA. LOPA is potentially a means of carrying out the assessment of barriers required in ARAMIS. This paper attempts to explain the principles of LOPA and the means by which it can be used within ARAMIS. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Title: An innovative approach to improve quality and efficiency in an outpatient oncology setting: Creative application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and best practices.

Source: ONCOLOGY NURSING FORUM

Author: Gruber, M; Bertran, N; Botter, M

Year: 2006

Abstract:


Title: Hazard and operability study using approximate reasoning in light-water reactors passive systems

Source: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN

Author: Guimaraes, ACF; Lapa, CMF

Year: 2006

Abstract: In this paper, a risk evaluation approach is applied on Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP). First, the concept of the traditional failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for the risk priority number (RPN) has been adapted and applied to HAZOP study. Then, a HAZOP rpn concept was created. The HAZOP rpn enables evaluation. of the risk level over the system caused by an abnormality on the physical phenomena. The approach created from the fusion between the HAZOP and the traditional RPN has been named hybrid HAZOP. Following this, a fuzzy inference was established over hybrid HAZOP system defining another approach to safety assessment and risk estimation. As an example case, a passive system designed for removing the decay heat of an advanced light-water reactor, was used. The set of results demonstrated the great adherence of the hybrid HAZOP approach in this class of problems. It endorses also the advantages of using of a fuzzy inference system to model the uncertainty parameters levels in risk analysis. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Title: Design, manufacturing, and experimental tests of a prismatic robot for assembly line

Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Author: Korayem, MH; Shiehbeiki, N; Khanali, T

Year: 2006

Abstract: Design of a robot has been defined for studying analyzing activities in the assembly line, and the proposed robot is applied for one of the important stations in the assembly line. Kinematics and dynamic modeling, finite element analysis (FEA), quality function deployment (QFD), and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) are used in this paper. Then a method of vision technique using a CCD-camera and a vision analytical software for practical tests of a 3P robot is presented. The most important subject pointed out, is finding the positional error parameters such as repeatability, positional deviation, and systematic errors of robot mechanism by choosing the proper standard for performing the test. Results are confirmed by the statistical and experimental method. Finally a method for increasing the accuracy of the robot will be proposed is this experiment.


Title: Recommendation to treat continuous variable errors like attribute errors

Source: CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND LABORATORY MEDICINE

Author: Krouwer, JS

Year: 2006

Abstract: Clinical laboratory errors can be considered as either belonging to attribute or continuous variables. Attribute errors are usually considered to be pre- or postanalytical errors, whereas continuous variable errors are analytical. Goals for each error type are different. Error goals for continuous variables are often specified as limits that contain 95% of the results, whereas attribute error goals are specified as allowed error rates for serious events. This leads to a discrepancy, because for a million results, there can be up to 50,000 medically unacceptable analytical errors, but allowable pre- and post-analytical error rates are much lower than 5%. Steps to remedy this are to classify analytical error rates into severity categories, exemplified by existing glucose error grids. The results in each error grid zone are then counted, as has been recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This in effect transforms the continuous variable errors into attribute errors. This is an improvement over current practices for analytical errors, whereby the use of uncertainty intervals is recommended that include only 95% of the results ( i.e., leaves out the worst 5%), and it is precisely this 5% of results that are likely to be in the most severe zones of an error grid.


Title: Morphological features (defects) in fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

Source: JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES

Author: Kundu, S; Fowler, MW; Simon, LC; Grot, S

Year: 2006

Abstract: Reliability and durability issues in fuel cells are becoming more important as the technology and the industry matures. Although research in this area has increased, systematic failure analysis, such as a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), are very limited in the literature. This paper presents a categorization scheme of causes, modes, and effects related to fuel cell degradation and failure, with particular focus on the role of component quality, that can be used in FMEAs for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The work also identifies component defects imparted on catalyst-coated membranes (CCM) by manufacturing and proposes mechanisms by which they can influence overall degradation and reliability. Six major defects have been identified on fresh CCM materials, i.e., cracks, orientation, delamination, electrolyte clusters, platinum clusters, and thickness variations. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Title: Approximating failure distributions from similar components using artificial neural networks

Source: Safety and Reliability for Managing Risk, Vols 1-3

Author: Limbourg, P; Savic, R; Petersen, J; Kochs, HD

Year: 2006

Abstract: Reliability prediction methods for early design stages suffer from the lack of empirical failure data. However, expert knowledge and data from similar in-service components are information sources with high availability. In this work, a similarity-based expert elicitation procedure for failure distribution prediction is presented. Experts estimate relations to in-service components with known reliability characteristics. Neural networks are used to capture relations such as "similarity" and "wear out" to predict failure distribution and prediction uncertainty of new components. The approach is validated with a practical case study from the automotive industry. Empirical failure distributions for automatic transmissions are successfully predicted with acceptable accuracy. Results indicate that the method is a promising alternative to direct elicitation procedures such as FMEA.


Title: The output accepted process (OAP (R)) as a basis for optimal ceramic process control

Source: CFI-CERAMIC FORUM INTERNATIONAL

Author: Link, S; Engels, M

Year: 2006

Abstract: In the competitive ceramic market minimal costs, maximum quality and efficiency and flexibility determine the competitive edge. This requires knowledge based, integral process control. To achieve this process analysis techniques as Failure Modes & Effect Analysis (FMEA) and the principles of statistical process control have been tailored to be implemented in the ceramic production process. To support this the FGK has developed a process scan methodology, the Output Accepted Process OAP (R) scan, with which direct actions can be defined and undertaken to optimize existing production processes, based on the incorporation of company knowledge to achieve an optimal process control. The,approach is based on a strong cooperation with the factory staff to define and control targets, to define relevant improvement actions and to support transfer of the results into the production practice.


Title: Reliability assessment of motor drives

Source: 2006 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Vols 1-7

Author: Macken, KJP; Wallace, IT; Bollen, MHJ

Year: 2006

Abstract: Electric motor drives have seen widespread adoption in many applications. Motor drives reliability has become a driving factor for potential customers whose process up time and power availability are crucial to their business success. Reliability is therefore a key driver in power circuit design for these applications. Two commonly used approaches available to designers to assess the reliability of motor drives are detailed in this paper. The first approach is a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). This approach is used to identify and list those component failures and combinations of component failures that result in an interruption of operation. The second approach is a so-called calculation of reliability indices which is performed to quantify the reliability of the system and verify that the design requirements are met. A case study of a redundant multilevel motor drive for multi-megawatt gas compression systems is given to illustrate both approaches.


Title: Extended possibilities to identify call for actions in FMEA

Source: Safety and Reliability for Managing Risk, Vols 1-3

Author: Muller, P; Pickard, K; Bertsche, B

Year: 2006

Abstract: The focus of the FMEA (failure mode and effects analysis) lies on the failure analysis and the concluding risk assessment. The risk is represented by the risk priority number (RPN) which is calculated by multiplying the three assessment numbers S, 0 and D. For the identification of potential risks an RPN limit is defined. The sole analysis of the RPN for the identification of potential risks and call for actions has proved, in practice, to be inexpedient. By the multiplication of the assessment numbers an ambiguous and poorly interpretable number is created, which does not show all potential risks. A new approach of an extended possibility for the perception and the identification of potential risks and call for actions is presented. Three new risk indicators are defined, which are created by the standard assessment numbers S, 0 and D. The risk indicators can be subdivided into the development and process risk, the probability of failures in field, and the undetected critical failures. The aim of this approach is a transparent analysis concerning the identification of potential risks without ambiguities and poor interpretability.


Title: Dam ageing diagnosis and risk analysis: Development of methods to support expert judgment

Source: CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL JOURNAL

Author: Peyras, L; Royet, P; Boissier, D

Year: 2006

Abstract: Diagnosis and risk analysis are essential to ensure the safety of dams. Dam specialist engineers have useful methods available to help them in their task: physical modelling for assessing dam stability, statistical analysis of dam monitoring data, and, more recently, functional modelling for operational safety analysis. However, an expert's judgment is necessary when the works are complex and unique, when data are imprecise or insufficient, and when preliminary diagnosis or detailed analysis are being made. Using their experience and knowledge, dam specialist engineers are able to provide recommendations to address specific problems. The authors propose methods to support expert diagnosis and risk analysis that capitalize on the expert's knowledge and feedback. Their approach is threefold: (i) an ageing functional model based on the failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) method using a causal graph representation of ageing scenarios leading to loss of functions; (ii) a qualitative method of describing dam ageing historical data and representing trends in performance loss; and (iii) qualitative methods to assess the risk of performance loss of dams and their components. In terms of practical applications, our research has produced a knowledge database on dam mechanisms. Also, an ageing historical database was compiled from dams that have experienced deterioration. Finally, we are developing computer aids to assist engineers in diagnosis and risk analysis tasks.


Title: Determination of failure probability distributions of complex systems based on FMEA assessment

Source: Safety and Reliability for Managing Risk, Vols 1-3

Author: Pickard, K; Bertsche, B

Year: 2006

Abstract: In modern product design cycles the development times are getting shorter whereas the requirements increase. To counteract quality and reliability problems different quality methods were integrated into the product design cycle, e.g. FMEA, etc.. Yet, in order to achieve a lifetime prediction or prognosis on the product reliability several tests still have to be carried out. The problem is, however, that these tests often take place in later design stages. To avoid such late lifetime predictions, a procedure is presented, that enables a lifetime prediction based on FMEA assessment values. Therefore the FMEA assessment values are transferred in input data for a two parametric Weibull distribution. With this distribution a description of the component and system failure behaviour can be made. The possible potentials will be shown with the help of an example and a comparison with real field data will be done. The procedure has been applied in several projects in automotive industry. The performance of the prognosis has been verified by real field data and has shown respectable results.


Title: Reliability related concept assessment in early design stages

Source: Safety and Reliability for Managing Risk, Vols 1-3

Author: Pickard, K; Leopold, T; Bertsche, B

Year: 2006

Abstract: In early design stages, where the database and the level of detail of a product are low, the procedure of qualitative concept comparison enables an assessment of different concepts. First, the system has to be named and the system functions and failures have to be defined. Afterwards, the different concepts, which are possible for the realization of the system, are named and their operating modes and possible failures are described. By assessing the concepts and analyzing the results of the concept comparison, one yields the most developable concept, e.g. the one with the highest development potential and with the lowest failure risk in the further product development cycle and in the field. Furthermore, the potentials of transferring the information given in the concept comparison into a risk analysis and/or FMEA to accompany and to use them further in the product design cycle, is shown.


Title: A layered approach to automated electrical safety analysis in automotive environments

Source: COMPUTERS IN INDUSTRY

Author: Price, CJ; Snooke, NA; Lewis, SD

Year: 2006

Abstract: Software support for the automotive electrical design process is vital, as many of the safety analysis tasks needing to be carried out, while complex, are repetitive and time consuming. Such support is required throughout the design process, but the available commercial tools are only appropriate, at specific points in the design process-providing either an early rough analysis or a late but detailed analysis. This paper describes how the capability and utility of safety analysis software can be improved through separating the types of knowledge used into layers. This allows the maximum amount of information to be reused as the design evolves, and enables software tools to track the consequences of changes to the design so that the repercussions of any design change can be understood. The software capability described has profound implications for the design process. Previously, engineers performed a snapshot design safety analysis at some point in the design process, even if they had an automated design safety analysis tool to assist them. The process and tool arrangement described in this paper enables engineers to continually monitor the status of a design, noting the implications of any changes or refinements to the design. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Title: Legal aspects of product liability and FMEA

Source: Safety and Reliability for Managing Risk, Vols 1-3

Author: Ricco, R; Pickard, K; Bertsche, B

Year: 2006

Abstract: The development trends and times are getting harder and harder. In order to counteract the increasing quality and reliability problems different quality methods were integrated in the product design cycle. However, over the time the legal aspects have changed as well and the product liability playing a more and more important role in the development of new products. This paper deals with the fundamentals of product liability and the interactions and influences on the quality methods. The FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects and Analysis) will be used to demonstrate these effects.


Title: Reprioritization of failures in a system failure mode and effects analysis by decision making trial and evaluation laboratory technique

Source: RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY

Author: Seyed-Hosseini, SM; Safaei, N; Asgharpour, MJ

Year: 2006

Abstract: In this paper an effective methodology related to decision making field has been developed for reprioritization of failure modes in a system Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for corrective actions. The proposed methodology can cover some of inherently shortcomings of conventional Risk Priority Number (RPN) method and like. The current prioritization methods have two main deficiencies as: they have not considered indirect relations between components and are deficient for systems with many subsystems or components. The proposed method called Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) is an effective approach for analyzing relation between components of a system in respect to its type (direct/indirect) and severity. The main advantages of DEMATEL are involving indirect relations in analyze, allocating as possible as unique ranks to alternatives and clustering alternatives in large systems. The demonstrated results have shown that DEMATEL method can be an efficient, complementary and confident approach for reprioritization of failure modes in a FMEA. For verification of proposed methodology, two illustrative practical examples are solved and obtained outcomes are reported. (C) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Title: Comparison of operator processes for pretransfusion testing on the ORTHO AutoVue Innova, Galileo, and Classic ID-Gel Station using failure modes and effects analysis

Source: VOX SANGUINIS

Author: South, F; Casina, T; Malomgre, W

Year: 2006

Abstract:


Title: Application of fuzzy inference techniques to FMEA

Source: Applied Soft Computing Technologies: The Challenge of Complexity

Author: Tay, KM; Lim, CP

Year: 2006

Abstract: In traditional Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), the Risk Priority Number (RPN) ranking system is used to evaluate the risk level of failures, to rank failures, and to prioritize actions. This approach is simple but it suffers from several weaknesses. In an attempt to overcome the weaknesses associated with the traditional RPN ranking system, several fuzzy inference techniques for RPN determination are investigated in this paper. A generic Fuzzy RPN approach is described, and its performance is evaluated using a case study relating to a semiconductor manufacturing process. In addition, enhancements for the fuzzy RPN approach are proposed by refining the weights of the fuzzy production rules.


Title: A guided rule reduction system for prioritization of failures in fuzzy FMEA

Source: Applications of Soft Computing: Recent Trends

Author: Tay, KM; Lim, CP

Year: 2006

Abstract: Traditional Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) utilizes the Risk Priority Number (RPN) ranking system to evaluate the risk level of failures, to rank failures, and to prioritize actions. Although this method is simple, it suffers from several shortcomings. In this paper, use of fuzzy inference techniques for RPN determination in an attempt to overcome the weaknesses associated with the traditional RPN ranking system is investigated. However, the fuzzy RPN model, suffers from the combinatorial rule explosion problem. As a result, a generic rule reduction approach, i.e. the Guided Rule Reduction System (GRRS), is proposed to reduce the number of rules that need to be provided by users during the fuzzy RPN modeling process. The proposed approach is evaluated using real-world case studies pertaining to semiconductor manufacturing. The results are analyzed, and implications of the proposed approach are discussed.


Title: Technical audit of the water distribution network

Source: 5th World Water Congress: Water Services Management

Author: Tuhovcak, L; Kucera, T; Rucka, J; Svoboda, M; Svitak, Z

Year: 2006

Abstract: This paper outlines one possible approach to the comprehensive technical audit of water distribution networks. Based on practical experience, discussions with domestic and foreign operators, and knowledge gained from international projects, the paper proposes technical indicators, methods for their determination and criteria for evaluating the values reached by these indicators. The proposed procedure is based on the FMEA (Failure Modes Effects and Analysis) method, used in the general theory of risk analysis. The results of this method were employed to evaluate the technical condition of the water distribution network in Pilsen, Czech Republic.


Title: Modeling warranty cost based on assessment of product components reliability

Source: Safety and Reliability for Managing Risk, Vols 1-3

Author: Vintr, Z; Vintr, M

Year: 2006

Abstract: The article deals with a possibility how to use Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in assessing warranty costs of repairable products. A proposed procedure is especially suitable for products with a new design when credible information gathered by monitoring of comparable products in service and especially in the warranty period is not available. The article describes a procedure that augments FMEA and, in addition to standard analyzed information, at each failure mode it further evaluates an assumed number of a given type of failure during a warranty period, method of its repair, its labor consumption and costs needed for spare parts and material. It also presents a model that based on these data enables to carry out an estimate of warranty costs of a product as a whole.


Title: A manufacturing system 'analysis for re-engineering' framework for small- and medium-sized enterprises

Source: PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL

Author: Vosniakos, GC; Barla, E

Year: 2006

Abstract: This paper proposes applying a framework to re-engineer the manufacturing system of a small and medium sized enterprise (SME) producing security doors. A number of well-known analysis tools (IDEF0, activity-on-node, clustering, time analysis, cost analysis, quality function deployment, etc.) were combined in order to highlight and document flaws in specific aspects of the as-is system (e. g. equipment, the human factor, quality control etc.). Criteria employed to assess flaws refer to time, cost, quality and flexibility. The combination of tools used for system analysis and the context in which they are applied are innovative, although the tools themselves are not. After analysis, the system is re-engineered by replacing elements for each flaw, constructing partial empirical solutions, and conducted by failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). The most promising partial solutions and their implementation is suggested within possible manufacturing philosophies, e. g. cellular manufacturing, CIM, etc. The framework is simple, in that it does not consider complex (hierarchical) structures, and therefore it is only feasible for SMEs, whose hierarchical/functional structure is much simpler than that of larger enterprises, and especially for those in the batch manufacturing sector including final product assembly.


Title: Using failure mode and effects analysis to plan implementation of smart i.v. pump technology

Source: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH-SYSTEM PHARMACY

Author: Wetterneck, TB; Skibinsk, KA; Roberts, TL; Kleppin, SM; Schroeder, ME; Enloe, M; Rough, SS; Hundt, AS; Carayon, P

Year: 2006

Abstract: Purpose. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was used to evaluate a smart i.v. pump as it was implemented into a redesigned medication-use process. Summary. A multidisciplinary team conducted a FMEA to guide the implementation of a smart i.v. pump that was designed to prevent pump programming errors. The smart i.v. pump was equipped with a dose-error reduction system that included a pre-defined drug library in which dosage limits were set for each medication. Monitoring for potential failures and errors occurred for three months postimplementation of FMEA. Specific measures were used to determine the success of the actions that were implemented as a result of the FMEA. The FMEA process at the hospital identified key failure modes in the medication process with the use of the old and new pumps, and actions were taken to avoid errors and adverse events. IN. pump software and hardware design changes were also recommended. Thirteen of the 18 failure modes reported in practice after pump implementation had been identified by the team. A beneficial outcome of FMEA was the development of a multidisciplinary team that provided the infrastructure for safe technology implementation and effective event investigation after implementation. With the continual updating of i.v. pump software and hardware after implementation, FMEA can be an important starting place for safe technology choice and implementation and can produce site experts to follow technology and process changes overtime. Conclusion. FMEA was useful in identifying potential problems in the medication-use process with the implementation of new smart i.v. pumps. Monitoring for system failures and errors after implementation remains necessary.


Title: Reliability demonstration test planning: A three dimensional consideration

Source: RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY

Author: Yadav, OP; Singh, N; Goel, PS

Year: 2006

Abstract: Increasing customer demand for reliability, fierce market competition on time-to-market and cost, and highly reliable products are making reliability testing more challenging task. This paper presents a systematic approach for identifying critical elements (subsystems and components) of the system and deciding the types of test to be performed to demonstrate reliability. It decomposes the system into three dimensions, (i.e. physical, functional and time) and identifies critical elements in the design by allocating system level reliability to each candidate. The decomposition of system level reliability is achieved by using criticality index. The numerical value of criticality index for each candidate is derived based on the information available from failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) document or warranty data from a prior system. It makes use of this information to develop reliability demonstration test plan for the identified (critical) failure mechanisms and physical elements. It also highlights the benefits of using prior information in order to locate critical spots in the design and in subsequent development of test plans. A case example is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach. (C) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Title: Quantitative model for evaluating the quality of an automotive business process

Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRODUCTION RESEARCH

Author: Zakarian, A; Wickett, P; Siradeghyan, Y

Year: 2006

Abstract: One of the key issues to business process control is the identification of measurable process attributes. For manufacturing processes these are typically physical parameters of the process (e.g. temperature, set points) or physical attributes of the manufactured product (e.g. dimension, functional performance). However, for business processes the metrics are more abstract. The challenge has been to develop metrics that capture the contributing subtle and hard to measure factors for business process control. This paper presents an analytical model that uses the weights-of-evidence concept to convert answers to audit or self-assessment questions into a single numerical process quality index. This index is used to forecast process success or failure and monitor its performance from start to end. The application of the approach is illustrated with an automotive industry product development sub-process where the process performance metric is the field warranty data, i.e. incidents per thousand vehicles (IPTV). The analytical model converts process self-assessment (failure mode and effect analysis) questions into a single numeric process quality index. The validity of the model is reflected in the strength of the correlation between the index and the IPTV results. Also, in this paper a measure is developed for identifying critical process quality assessment questions. This measure quantifies the deviation in the automotive business process that should have more focus. The significance of the analytical model proposed in this research is that the project managers or quality assurance auditors may be able to use the metric to predict product quality at any point in the product development process.


Title: Using Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to improve medication safety

Source: ONCOLOGY NURSING FORUM

Author: Zupa, E; Abbotoy, J; Koester, D

Year: 2006

Abstract:


Title: Question: DRC or DfM ? Answer: FMEA and ROI

Source: ISQED 2006: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 7TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON QUALITY ELECTRONIC DESIGN

Author: Balasinski, A

Year: 2006

Abstract: Design for Manufacturability (DfM) is a design verification methodology linked to a set of requirements that can be perceived as gray area within the design rule check (DRC) approach based on rigid pass/fail criteria. This is because the DfM rules, unlike DRC, are not directly responsible for the functionality of individual devices, but are broadly scoped to address the die yield over the process corners. At the same time, all design rules are to ensure high performance and profit margins. Therefore, the distinction between DfM and DRC rules is often artificial and confusing. In this paper, we propose how to combine all design rules into one enforceable deck, regardless of their origin, and introduce an implementation cutoff lines decided by technology and business factors. This new methodology is based on the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Return on Investment (RoI). FMEA, involving the criticality, occurrence, and detectability of failure modes, is demonstrated for D)V rules focused on System on Chip (SoC). The results are then correlated to those of the RoI approach for the same set of rules.


Title: Risk assessments for offshore jacket platforms based on fuzzy Probabilistic Influence Diagram

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTEENTH (2006) INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE AND POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, VOL 4

Author: Kang, HG; Han, JW; Zhou, PF

Year: 2006

Abstract: The paper proposes a risk assessment method for offshore jacket platform based on Fuzzy Probability Influence Diagram (FPID) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Construction of the relation matrix and data structure makes it possible to dynamically describe the model. An application of presented method to jacket platform is also implemented. The method can be widely applicable although only offshore platform is analyzed here.


Title: FMEA based potential risk analysis of lower cost region sourcing

Source: 2006 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SERVICE OPERATIONS AND LOGISTICS, AND INFORMATICS (SOLI 2006), PROCEEDINGS

Author: Zhang, J; Zhu, Q

Year: 2006

Abstract: Lower cost region sourcing (LCRS) is becoming one of the important activities of the sourcing manager in many enterprises in the higher cost region, such as America, Japan, etc. When Supply chain managers are facing the lower price products from the LCR, they must consider how to analyze the risks of LCRS to control these risks and take the relate measures. A risk analysis and assessment approach is proposed which applied failure mode effect analysis methodology to layout the potential risks of lower cost region sourcing. The approach of risks identification, risk analysis and risk assessment is discussed to control and mitigate potential risks associated with lower cost region sourcing activities. The proposed approaches can help enterprise to know clearly the risks in LCRS and to determine the corresponding actions and their priority sequence to cope with the risks so as to avoid the damages caused by blindness actions.


Title: Contribution to development of new risk analysis methods

Source: TWELFTH ISSAT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE RELIABILITY AND QUALITY IN DESIGN, PROCEEDINGS

Author: Popovic, V; Vujanovic, N; Vasic, B

Year: 2006

Abstract: A real analysis or prediction of possible failure modes of any system represents a necessary basis of every project the purpose of which is to increase reliability, which especially applies to development of new systems. This paper shows how one of the most widely used failure analysis methods - method of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis - FMEA, can be improved by eliminating the shortcomings observed in the so far, rather varied application in different areas. This is illustrated by the example of an analysis of a large tram rolling stock. We have paid a great deal of attention to risk analysis and direct inclusion of this parametre into the known FMEA method, insisting on the inconsistencies. of the traditional FMEA method. The result of our efforts is a new, in our opinion, improved approach to technical system failure analysis, which, beside the so far used parametres, introduces a new dimension into the whole process, through the cost and risk analysis.


Title: Fault diagnosis of reverse osmosis system for chemical water treatment in power plant based on FMEA and rough set theory

Source: WCICA 2006: SIXTH WORLD CONGRESS ON INTELLIGENT CONTROL AND AUTOMATION, VOLS 1-12, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

Author: Dong, YL; Gu, YJ; Li, YQ; Yang, K

Year: 2006

Abstract: Aiming at the problem of redundant symptoms and incomplete information when diagnosing the fault of reverse osmosis system for chemical water treatment in power plant using the result of failure mode and effect analysis. A fault diagnosis method of RO system is proposed based on rough set theory. By analyzing the classical failure modes of RO system, fault diagnosis decision table is built, then fault symptom attributes reduction is made, and the fault diagnosis rules are gained. An instance analysis of a RO system is made, the result shows that this method is feasible and effective and can fulfill the fault diagnosis of RO system and can be a support for making decision for cleaning and maintenance.


Title: Condition-based maintenance support system of feed pumps in 660MW thermal power generating unit

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING

Author: Chen, F; Huang, SH; Qiu, JH; Chen, G; Gao, W

Year: 2006

Abstract: In this paper, the current situation of research on condition-based maintenance (CBM) and the implementation of it are introduced. in power plants in China And according to the condition in Shajiao "C" power plant in Dongguan, Guangdong province, a CBM support system of feed pumps in power plants has been developed. With the advanced reliability centered maintenance (RCM) at the core, based on the failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) for every component of feed pumps, the system will make the optimum maintenance decision according to the results of the condition evaluation and risk evaluation. The satisfying running state of feed pumps in 660MW thermal power generating unit in Shajiao "C" power plant shows that the system is user-friendly, reliable and therefore lays a solid foundation for the CBM of all the equipments in the power plant.


Title: The XML-based knowledge presentation of the intelligent FMEA

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING

Author: Xu, ZC; Zhou, J; Liu, YL

Year: 2006

Abstract: The XML technical is introduced into, the supportability analysis, and an oriented object-based XML knowledge presentation method of intelligent FMEA is built in this paper. This. intelligent FMEA knowledge presentation method is analyzed amply with an example of failure mode selection knowledge presentation, which integrates the benefits of the oriented object method and XML technical. This method can effectively describe the complex product parts and failure modes and solve the general FMEA knowledge format requirement of the long-range distributed intelligent FMEA, it can also improve the shortage that the traditional FMEA knowledge can't be used easily in the heterogeneous systems.


Title: The availability model for the items with compound failure modes (ID : 2-005)

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 13TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT, VOLS 1-5

Author: Cheng, ZH; Jia, XS; Gao, P; Bai, YS

Year: 2006

Abstract: Based on failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) of hydraulic system of a certain machining plant, this paper finds that main cause of hydraulic system failure is failure mode of wearing and cracking of counter-recoil rod. According to failure mode of wearing, states of counter-recoil rod may be described as three kinds: normal, potential failure and function failure and according to failure mode of cracking, states of counter-recoil rod may be described as two kinds: normal and function failure. How to develop the availability model of the counter-recoil rod has become an imperative problem for operators and managements of plant. Based on analysis of the above practical case, the paper, by simplifying practical problems and applying stochastic process methods, develops the stable state availability model of complex item with compound failure modes and mixed-states (to be mixed with two states and three states). At the same time, procedure and methods for modelling are also presented. This model meets requirement of operator and management of plant, and has better sensitivity. The model and method in this paper may be directly applied to solve homologous problems.


Title: An improved logic diagram of RCM with the Root Cause Analysis (ID : 2-046)

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 13TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT, VOLS 1-5

Author: Song, WY; Hong, Q; Kang, JS; Wen, L

Year: 2006

Abstract: In current Reliability Centered Maintenance Analysis (RCMA), the preventive maintenance tasks are developed according to the failure effect, the direct failure cause and the failure characteristic of the item. The items with the lowest level in RCMA are those units that can be replaced or restored on equipment directly. Clearly, the maintenance tasks adopted in RCMA only focus on the direct failure cause or failure itself of these items, not the root cause of the failure. So, in practice, there are still some failures with root cause reoccured for the RCMA fails to find the solutions for the root causes, such as the personal training problems, material problems or other more deep level problems. Fortunatly, Root Cause Analysis(RCA) is a special method in finding the root cause of an affair, it can identify the cause-effect chain consisted of the key factors of the current failure. So, the logic diagram and induction principle of RCM can be improved. by RCA. In the new logic diagram, functional significant items(FSI) can be divided into 3 types by an improved FMEA method: items with high reliability require, items with high frequency of failure reoccur, and other FSI. For defferent items, different method shoud be selected. otherwise, there are still some items should be serviced by some of 7 preventive maintenance in RCMA after by some root cause measures. At last, this method is used to analyzed an anti-recoil equipment of one cannon.


Title: The integrated system of QFD and FMEA based on CSCW

Source: 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON DIGITAL MANUFACTURE, VOLS 1-3

Author: Jiang, XY; Gong, YD; Wang, GH; Yu, TB; Wang, WS

Year: 2006

Abstract: There has been some research on the theory of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and FMEA (Failure Modes and Effect Ana lysis) recently, but little work to the integrated system of QFD and FMEA development. This paper analyses the technical difficulties of realization of QFD and proposes away using computer-supported collaborative work to develop the integrated system of QFD and FMEA and how to do it. The way can make the system more efficient and more suitable to new requirements Of networked manufacturing enterprise. The same time, prototype system of the integrated system is developed by comprehensively application of Java,JSP,JavaServlet, the open World Wide Web platforms of which enhances the communication function, improves the group cooperation and shorts the development time. The system is verified reasonably and reliably through the example of QFD analysis of some automobile.


Title: Design of the support system for the production control of injection forming process using DFSS methodology

Source: ANNALS OF DAAAM FOR 2006 & PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL DAAAM SYMPOSIUM

Author: Baek, JY; Kim, BH; Lee, GB; Park, SE; Lee, HC

Year: 2006

Abstract: The urethane injection forming, process which mixes polyol and isocyanate material and makes a specific shape is the manufacturing technology which requires the chemical knowledge, the control know-how and the experience of manufacturing facilities. To analyze and control the manufacturing process of the injection forming systematically, this study introduces some DFSS (design for six sigma) tools such as process map, C&E (cause and effect) matrix, FMEA (failure mode effect analysis) and control plan. In other words, the manufacturing process is analyzed according to the following three steps: 1) making the process-map for analyzing the sequence of the manufacturing process and defining the input/output data of each process, 2) extracting the major factors affecting the product quality using C&E matrix, and 3) analyzing FEMA (failure mode effect analysis) of each process. Using the result of the analysis, this study makes the control plan and designs the detail control algorithms of the support system. Furthermore, the architecture of the support system is designed considering users' convenience and system portability.


Title: Fault tree analysis and failure mode effects analysis based on multi-level flow modeling and causality estimation

Source: 2006 SICE-ICASE INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-13

Author: Gofuku, A; Koide, S; Shimada, N

Year: 2006

Abstract: The fault tree analysis (FTA) and the failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) are widely applied to the safety evaluation of a system, especially in the development of large-scale and mission-critical system such as nuclear power plants, aircrafts, and space rockets. The principle of FTA and FMEA is to trace comprehensively cause-effect relations among anomaly causes and undesirable effects. Their results are summarized as trees and tables for the sake of tractability in safety evaluation. The Multi-level Flow Modeling (MFM) is a functional modeling technique. It models diagrammatically a system from the viewpoint of the means-end dimension. This paper proposes a technique to automatically generate FTA trees and FMEA table from causal relations among functions and sub-goals of a system that is expressed in the MFM model of the system with the additional ontology of device anomaly. The applicability and the effects of the technique have been confirmed through the development of a fuel injection system of a launcher for a middle-size space rocket.


Title: Method for improvenment of mechanical assembly quality of precise electrical contacts

Source: 2006 29TH INTERNATIONAL SPRING SEMINAR ON ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY

Author: Tcenev, IV; Fillipov, F; Petrova, I

Year: 2006

Abstract: In electronics and sensor mounting technology, the reliability and quality of the modules depends on electrical contacts. Technologically this is a process of mechanical assembly and soldering/ welding. The quality of contact depends on applied process parameters and human factor in both production steps. In this paper we investigate influence of different process parameters over the assembly, of precise small contacts in high temperature sensor. These influences are examined by applying SPC (Statistical Process Control) [2] and after that optimal process parameters are defined. Process capability is more than 1.67 (automotive processes must be with capability grater than 1.67). For continuous improvement of assembly process we apply FMEA (Failure mode and effect analysis). Results are compared with other methods for component assembly like SMT - Surface mount technology which is a standard for judgement of contact assembly process characteristics.


Title: Electronic prognostics - A case study using switched-mode power supplies (SMPS)

Source: 2006 IEEE AUTOTESTCON, VOLS 1 AND 2

Author: Brown, D; Kalgren, P; Dabney, T

Year: 2006

Abstract: Increased awareness of potential cost savings and improved reliability associated with Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) for avionic systems has generated interest in the research and development of novel electronic prognostic and health management (PHM) solutions. This paper describes the process, with related examples, used to develop prognostics algorithms for a commercially available switched-mode power supply (SMPS) using corroborative evidence sources. The process begins with a Pareto analysis indicating the primary modes of failure. Critical components are identified using a three-tier failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) by investigating device, circuit, and system parameters sensitive to degradation. Once acceleration factors, or sources of degradation, are known damage accumulation failure models for each critical component are derived from highly accelerated life tests (HALT). Then, healthy components are systematically degraded to varying levels of severity by performing highly accelerated stress testing (HAST). These components are used in seeded fault tests to identify system-level parameters sensitive to device damage. Features extracted from data recorded during seeded fault tests are used to derive feature-based failure models. Finally, reasoning and data fusion algorithms are applied to both models to generate corroborative remaining useful life (RUL) predictions.


Title: Electronic failures and monitoring strategies in automotive control units

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 2007 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Pickard, K; Leopold, T; Mueller, P; Bertsche, B

Year: 2006

Abstract: A widely spread and required risk analysis method in automotive industry is the FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) [l, 2, 3]. However, it can be shown, that with the help of the FMEA, the complex relations of drive and monitoring strategies for example in engine, transmission and/or general automotive control units, cannot be completely treated. In order to show and to implement the new legal requirements, the increased complexity, the cross linking of the developed systems and, last but not least, the shortened development times, a new procedure was created. The new procedure enables, by a two-phase layout, the assisting of the implementation of drive and monitoring strategies in automotive control units and the illustration of possible failure functions in software, electronics, mechanics and their interactions to other systems. Furthermore it allows the definition of adequate failure reactions to prevent, to minimize and/or to keep the vehicle in stable and secured working conditions. It is now possible, under consideration of the defined measures, to demonstrate the potential of improvement, i.e. the decrease of the assessment value of the severity and the connected failure effect in a traceable way and to allow a suitable risk priorization in an FMEA.


Title: Probabilistic risk assessment: A practical & cost effective approach

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 2007 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Lee, LL; Ingegneri, AJ; Li, M; Everett, DF

Year: 2006

Abstract: This paper describes the approach taken for the reliability analyses, including Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs), of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that have been performed concurrently with the designs to identify problem areas and. ensure corrective actions were taken in a timely manner: The LRO is a large system with more than 14,000 piece-parts and over 120 purchased or contractor-built components. These analyses formulate the probability of failure for each of the components of the system. PRA then integrates these analytical techniques and results to assess the potential for failure and to help find ways to reduce the mission risks. By utilizing the traditional and innovative methods to perform reliability analyses, such as reliability predictions, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), the LRO project office, with close collaboration with the reliability team, has improved the probability of mission success, from 0.72 to 0.81, within a tight schedule and limited budget. As more data from the manufacturers and GSFC designs become available, the reliability and system teams will continue to update the analyses to assess risks throughout the entire lifecycle of the mission.


Title: How to close the gap between hardware and software using FMEA

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 2007 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Bidokhti, N

Year: 2006

Abstract: This paper will discuss the role of FMEA in bridging the gap between hardware and software development with focus on improving system fault management. Many product fault management issues stem from software development not being aligned with hardware development. Typically, when hardware is involved in developing a new platform or product, through designing new architecture and ASICs with new features, the software team is still busy with previous release sustaining issues. The importance of time to market and reduction of development time has impacted and compounded this gap. Software designers may get a chance to look at the product requirement document and provide some type of input. Soon after they are busy addressing previous release bugs. This process is repeated from one product to the next. What happens is that the software designer due to lack of hardware information tends to mask interrupts basically ignoring them. This design approach has the tendency to produce a less than desirable product with marginal fault management capability. Another important issue is product complexity. As the distance between the hardware and software engineer increases and products become more complex, it is normal to encounter more issues in the subsequent product, than the previous release or platform. The paper will describe the process of how to start a FMEA, team selection, how to perform FMEA, who and when to perform the FMEA, types of FMEAs, who are the potential customers of a FMEA, how to communicate the results to the management and how to validate failure modes.


Title: Can failure modes and effects analysis assure a reliable product?

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 2007 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Krasich, M

Year: 2006

Abstract: FMEA is dully regarded as a valuable tool for improvement of product reliability. In many industries, specifically in automotive, FMEA is a mandatory deliverable of product development process documentation. Dependent on the level of expertise of analysis team or individual analysts, the analysis is done in more or less detail, with more or less precision and level of detail. The three attributes, Severity, Probability of Occurrence and Detection, in automotive methodology, or Severity and Probability of Occurrence in the International, IEC methodology, need to be determined to evaluate the risk and mitigate those failure modes that pose a high risk to the product functionality or to the User. While Severity of a potential failure mode is intuitively easy to estimate, Occurrence and Detection need inputs from other reliability methods (reliability prediction or test) to be correctly determined. FMEA is an analysis that originally was intended as a bottom-up approach, where components of devices were analyzed for the manner in which they might fail (potential failure modes). The effects of those failure modes were then investigated to determine or. measure the risk to the product. One of the basic rules of an FMEA is that each failure mode is treated as an independent event.. Interactions. or sequence of the. failure modes occurrence are modeled and analyzed using other reliability tools such as Reliability Block Diagram, RBD, or Fault Tree Analysis, FTA or Event Tree Analysis, ETA. Because of the fact that this paper is not associated with any specific FMEA methodology, the general term FMEA is used for analysis of failure modes of a design, which is a reliability discipline. The term DFMEA specific to automotive industry and its FMEA methodology was therefore not used. A very complex FMEA or FMEA with applied Physics of Failure for estimation of Probability of occurrence of individual failure modes requires considerable resources for accurate estimates of risk. FMEA also depends on information from other reliability activities such as reliability prediction with failure rate acceleration for stresses, inputs from fault tree or event tree analyses. A thorough FMEA will show failure modes mitigation, risk reduction, and relative reliability improvements of a product, resulting from improvements but will not track overall product reliability improvement since it does not model functionality of the product. It is indisputable that the mitigation of failure modes is important, but overall product reliability is also important. Presence of a multitude of failure modes of relatively low probability of occurrence or their interaction may be the causeof low product reliability, regardless of reduction of risk of the individual failure modes. When a product also has reliability requirements, performance of just FMEA without support from other reliability methods, will not guarantee or show that the required reliability is achieved. It is the well organized and managed overall reliability program with reliability and engineering tests and analyses (including FMEA) that can assure that the delivered product will meet Customer expectations.


Title: The risks of applying qualitative reliability prediction methods: A case study

Source: 2006 Proceedings - Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, Vols 1 and 2

Author: de Visser, IM; van den Bogaard, JA

Year: 2006

Abstract: The fast technological innovation of the past decades contributed to an increasing complexity in products. This increased product complexity together with four different business drivers (time, profitability, functionality and quality) have an important influence on the reliability strategies used within companies. New methods are necessary to predict reliability in product design [1]. In current business processes qualitative reliability prediction methods are often applied to estimate the reliability risks present in products and processes. An example of a popular qualitative reliability prediction method is the so-called Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Many successful implementations of the FMEA method are described in literature from various professional fields. On the other hand, several setbacks of the traditional FMEA approach are described in literature. Most of these drawbacks result from the qualitative analysis approach. Nevertheless, the FMEA reliability prediction method is probably the most implemented method in practice. Present-day companies do not seem to take notice of the drawbacks of qualitative reliability prediction methods as described in literature. A convincing reason for this is the fact that no proven alternatives exist for these qualitative methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to illustrate the risks of applying qualitative reliability prediction methods in practice and make suggestions for improving the application of these methods. This illustration is based on a complete reliability prediction approach named ROMDA. This ROMDA approach adopts FMEA to predict product reliability and will be presented in the second section. Subsequently this ROMDA approach is applied in a practical situation after which the reliability predictions are evaluated. Based on this evaluation, general conclusions and recommendations are described in order to improve the application of qualitative reliability prediction methods in practice.


Title: Reliability related concept comparison and derivation of a risk analysis in early design stages

Source: 2006 Proceedings - Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, Vols 1 and 2

Author: Pickard, K; Muller, P; Bertsche, B

Year: 2006

Abstract: The concept comparison method offers the opportunity of a systematic, comprehensive and reusable procedure to validate different concepts in an early design stage. The procedure enables (also for complex mechatronical concepts) a reliability related determination of the most developable concept. The method itself is subdivided into four work steps. After defining the system and concepts, the global system requirements and failure functions are determined. By describing the functionality of the individual concepts in the application and failure case together with the respective assessment, a concept comparison based on one single overall assessment number is enabled. The gathered information and evaluations provide the opportunity to derive a qualitative risk analysis or FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis). This offers a suitable usage of information for the further product design cycle.

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