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2001


Title: Failure mode and effect analysis of automation systems of ships

Source: MARINE TECHNOLOGY IV

Author: Ahvenjarvi, S

Year: 2001

Abstract: A Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a reliability evaluation technique that can be used in analysing risks involving the failure modes of the technical systems onboard a ship. The objective of this study is to examine the application of FMEA to automation systems of existing ships. Could FMEA be effective in improving the safety of an automation system, such as the integrated bridge system (IBS) of an existing ship? Experiences gained from recent FMEA projects in Finland have been examined by interviewing key persons of the projects. According to the study, FMEA of a system on an existing ship should be organised so, that the knowledge and experience of the users and maintenance personnel of the system can be utilised as much as possible. The active participation of the personnel of the ship is important also because of the learning process that takes place during FMEA. Identifying the possible failure modes and the consequences of them is very demanding, if the system consists of many computer-based units or subsystems connected to each other. An integrated bridge system is a typical example of this. A suitable "top-down" method, such as a failure tree analysis, can be used to complement FMEA in such cases. Attention should be paid also to updating the FMEA after system modifications and software updates. Based on the practical experiences some proposals for a successful FMEA project are summarized in the end of this paper.


Title: Software failure modes and effects analysis for a small embedded control system

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 2001 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Bowles, JB; Wan, C

Year: 2001

Abstract: The work shown here provides a comprehensive example illustrating how software Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) can be effectively applied to a microprocessor based described. Initially, the system is described functionally and the component failure modes, which must be functional in a Functional system description, are analyzed. Then the interfaces between software modules and between the software: and hardware are defined and the interface failure modes are analyzed. Finally. a detailed analysis of the failure modes of this manner allows the results of the functional analysis to be used to reduce the amount of effort required for the interface and detailed analyses; similarly, the results of the functional and interface analyses reduce the effort required for the detailed analysis. One interesting result is that an analysis of the software includes certain hardware failures such as "stuck-at" and memory faults that might not otherwise be analyzed. The analysis reveals several design deficiencies for which The work shown here provides a comprehensive example (FMEA) can be effectively applied to a microprocessor based control system having little or no hardware protection. Functional, interface, and detailed software FMEAs are described. Initially, the system is described functionally and Functional system description, are analyzed. analyzed. Finally, a detailed analysis of the failure modes of individual software variables is done. Doing the analysis in this manner allows the results of the functional analysis to be The analysis reveals several design deficiencies for which corrections or mitigating actions are needed.


Title: Institutionalizing reliability and maintainability in the industrial/commercial organization

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 2001 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Brall, A

Year: 2001

Abstract: Landis Gardner is a 103-year-old manufacturer of machine tools specifically, precision grinding machines sold principally to automotive manufacturers. The implementation of a reliability and maintainability (R&M) program at Landis Gardner resulted in R&M becoming "institutionalized'' throughout the company. That is, Landis Gardner has implemented an integrated R&M program where most of the employees are aware of R&M and how their job can affect it. Many of the functions traditionally performed by R&M specialists are, instead, performed by the various managers, engineers, and service technicians throughout the company as part of the normal business practices. The R&M program structure requires that most R&M tasks be performed as part of the design, manufacturing, installation, and servicing processes. Tasks that were being performed at Landis Gardner before the R&M program was initiated and were identified as meeting R&M requirements (i.e. Finite Element Analysis) were continued and formally documented within the R&M program structure. New tasks necessary to meet customer requirements or to assure the production and/or improvement of reliable, maintainable machine tool designs (e.g. Machinery Failure Modes and Effects Analysis [FMEA]) were then developed and implemented within the R&M program structure. Nonproductive tasks, such as routine R&M predictions to industry or military standards have, for the most part, not been implemented through mutual agreement with the customers. Additionally, traditional R&M techniques, such as FMEA and Fault Tree Analysis, have been applied to business processes to assist in mistake-proofing them and improving their efficiency. The general absence of customer-required reports, procedures and formats has helped to avoid the all too common practice of preparing contractually required "busy work" reports in the name of reliability and maintainability that usually end up residing in the bottom of file cabinets. The overall result has been substantially improved product R&M. The benefits include more than double the achieved mean time between maintenance actions (MTBMA), improved employee morale, and sales that have tripled during the eight years in which the program was implemented.


Title: A new approach for evaluation of risk priorities of failure modes in FMEA

Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRODUCTION RESEARCH

Author: Franceschini, F; Galetto, M

Year: 2001

Abstract: This paper presents a method for carrying out the calculus of the risk priority of failures in Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). The novelty of the method consists of new management of data provided by the design team, normally given on qualitative scales, without necessitating an arbitrary and artificial numerical conversion. The practical effects of these issues are shown in an application example.


Title: Incorporating uncertainty in the design of stream channel modifications

Source: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION

Author: Johnson, PA; Brown, ER

Year: 2001

Abstract: The designs of stream channel naturalization, rehabilitation, and restoration projects are inherently fraught with uncertainty. Although a systematic approach to design can be described, the likelihood of success or failure of the design is unknown due to uncertainties within the design and implementation process. In this paper, a method for incorporating uncertainty in decision-making during the design phase is presented that uses a decision analysis method known as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). The approach is applied to a channel rehabilitation project in north-central Pennsylvania. FMEA considers risk in terms of the likelihood of a component failure, the consequences of failure, and the level of difficulty required to detect failure. Ratings developed as part of the FMEA can provide justification for decision making in determining design components that require particular attention to prevent failure of the project and the appropriate compensating actions to be taken.


Title: Linking the future to the past: Closing the loop between yesterday's failures and tomorrow's solutions

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 2001 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Kraniak, B; Ammons, D

Year: 2001

Abstract: One of the key challenges faced by reliability engineers is how to store reliability and maintainability (R&M) information about their company's products in a form that is truly useful during the early stages of subsequent new product development efforts. This paper describes a project undertaken by the authors to accomplish this by linking a commercially available reliability and maintainability analysis suite to the company's existing field R&M data. The ultimate goal of this project was to apply, in a truly value-added manner, the tools of reliability, maintainability (R&M) and life cycle cost (LCC) analysis within the extreme timing and cost constraints faced by an automated manufacturing equipment supplier. The primary focus of this effort was the effective application of historical lessons learned and field R&M information to new product development. This project resulted in the development of a "drag and drop" approach to developing experience-based R&M and LCC analyses that delivers the following results: Preliminary reliability, maintainability and availability estimates for new machines can be made in under an hour. These estimates can be sorted to identify each new machine's likely R&M drivers. A preliminary machinery failure modes and effects analysis, sorted by risk priority number, can be produced for review by a cross-functional team in less than 1/2 day. A life cycle cost estimate for a machine, linked to the R&M model, can be prepared in about two hours. LCC estimates for alternate design approaches can be prepared in as little as a few minutes for a simple change, or in a few hours for more complex changes. Reports that identify the design verification and validation activities, manufacturing quality control or supplier controls required to ensure machine reliability are automatically generated from the FMEA.


Title: Using Bayes belief networks in industrial FMEA modeling and analysis

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 2001 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Lee, BH

Year: 2001

Abstract: This paper presents the use of Bayes probabilistic networks as a new methodology for encoding design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (BN-FMEA) models of mechatronic systems. The method employs established Bayesian belief network theory to construct probabilistic directed acyclic graph (DAG) models which represent causal and statistical dependencies between system-internal and -external (customer and world) state and event variables of the physical system. A new class of severity variables is also defined. Root probabilities and conditional probability and severity utility tables are generated and attached to the graph structure for use in inferencing and design trade-off evaluation. BN-FMEA provides a language for design teams to articulate - with greater precision and consistency and less ambiguity physical system failure cause-effect relationships, and the uncertainty about their impact on customers and the world. Demonstration software developed at Stanford illustrates how BN-FMEA can be applied to FMEA modeling of an inkjet printer. The software supports knowledge acquisition of BN-FMEA models, and generates from the belief net model Criticality Matrices and Pareto Charts conformant with established FMEA standards such as SAE 1998. The approach supports traditional design FMEA objectives identification of system failure modes - and provides improved knowledge representation and inferencing power. Limitations of the BN-FMEA methodology are also discussed. Finally, BN-FMEA is presented as a basis for improved integration of design and diagnostic modeling of mechatronic systems.


Title: Failure modes and effects analysis for software reliability

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 2001 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Nguyen, D

Year: 2001

Abstract: This paper is to present a systematic problem solving approach, which is based on the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), to system software reliability. This approach will practically: (a) Ensure that all of conceivable failure modes and their effects on operational success of the software system have been considered. (b) List potential failures, and identify the magnitude of their effects. (c) Develop criteria for test planning, design of the tests, and checkout systems (e.g., logging mechanism). (d) Provide a basis for quantitative reliability and availability analysis. (e) Provide a basis for establishing corrective action priorities. This approach was created for software reliability analysis and testing in the Multimedia Digital Distribution System (MDDS) at Thomson-CSF Sextant In-Flight Systems. First it was used to improve the software reliability for the Communication Control Unit (CCU) subsystem of the MDDS, and then globally applied to the software reliability analysis and improvement for the whole MDDS. It has been proven to be an effective and efficient approach to system software reliability.


Title: Advances in probabilistic design: manufacturing knowledge and applications

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART B-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MANUFACTURE

Author: Swift, KG; Raines, M; Booker, JD

Year: 2001

Abstract: Product Lifetime prediction, cost and weight optimization have enormous implications for the business of engineering manufacture. Deterministic design fails to provide the necessary understanding: of the nature of manufacture, material properties, in-service loading and their variation. Probabilistic approaches offer much potential in this connection, but have yet to be taken up widely by manufacturing industry. This paper reports on advances in probabilistic design made possible through new progress in manufacturing engineering. Methods for predicting process capability indices for given design geometry, material and processing route? and for estimating material property and loading stress variation, are developed to augment probabilistic design formulations. The techniques are used in conjunction with failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to facilitate the setting of reliability targets for design schemes. A case study is included to illustrate the application of the methods and the benefits that can accrue from their usage.


Title: Mechanical life prediction library for appliance components

Source: ANNUAL RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM, 2001 PROCEEDINGS

Author: Zagray, KW

Year: 2001

Abstract: The results of this work provide design guidance for critical appliance components, allows the designer to assess impact of design changes on reliability early in the design phase, aids in FMEA execution and Risk Assessments and, is a valuable accelerated test planning tool. The generic method of constructing these studies, which is presented here, can be applied to any component for any industry. This work provides relationships for failure rates for each component as a function of its respective mechanisms, acceleration factors and parameters. It describes the generic approach as to how these relationships were developed; how the relationships are made available to the design teams and how they are used. This Mechanical Life Prediction Database is under continuous improvement as new components are introduced, or new failure modes, models or mechanisms are discovered.


Title: Modified FMEA for fishing vessels: A fuzzy set and grey theory approach

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ELEVENTH (2001) INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE AND POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, VOL IV

Author: Pillay, A; Wang, J; Jung, GM; Kwon, YS; Loughran, CG; Anson, TI; Wall, AD; Ruxton, T

Year: 2001

Abstract: Traditional Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) utilises the Risk Priority Number (RPN) ranking system which has been criticised to have several drawbacks. This paper addresses these drawbacks by proposing a modified method utilising fuzzy approximate reasoning with the integration of expert judgement and grey relation analysis to rank the risks. A fuzzy rule base is generated using the fuzzy multi-expert weighted system. Grey relation analysis is then used to obtain a risk priority based on the relative importance of causes. The proposed method is demonstrated for a fishing vessel and the fuzzy rule base is developed using selected experts within the fishing industry.


Title: Automated incremental design FMEA

Source: 2001 IEEE AEROSPACE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1-7

Author: Throop, DR; Malin, JT; Fleming, LD

Year: 2001

Abstract: Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is typically a costly manual process. We present the EPOCH (Engineering Product and Operations Cross-cutting Hybrid) Simulation for Failure Analysis software. which automates generation of FMEA from design models. The tool performs sets of scenario-based analyses. using the CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulator, to generate reports summarizing detailing analysis results. The paper describes how the tool uses this simulator. and how time-step modeling has be extended to handle failure cases that violate steady state assumptions and approximations that are well founded for the nominal case. The automation supports incremental FMEA: reporting how a design change alters the presentation of the functional effects of failures, as seen over a set of operational scenarios. We describe the representations of failure modes, scenario scripts and functional labels that supports the capabilities of this tool. An example is presented. based on analysis of a propellant production plant for a planetary base.


Title: Artificial intelligence tools for applying failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).

Source: IC-AI'2001: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, VOLS I-III

Author: Garcia, JP; Garcia, DD; Moreno, PP; Diez, RP

Year: 2001

Abstract: This study describes an alternative way of applying Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to a wide variety of problems, It presents a methodology based on a decision system supported by qualitative rides which provides a ranking of the risks of potential causes of production system failures. By providing an illustrative example, it highlights the advantages of this flexible system over the traditional FMEA model. Moreover, in order to optimise the risk cause ranking, a comparative study between AI approaches such as Fuzzy Decision Systems, Neural Networks and Case Based Reasoning is proposed Results suggest that the fuzzy decision system is the most appropriate to optimise risk cause classification.


Title: Failure modes and effects analysis based risk management methodology for business process re-engineering project

Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2001 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, VOLS I AND II

Author: Xi, B; Li, YJ

Year: 2001

Abstract: Business process re-engineering, as the key to electronic business, mostly are failure for the risks in terms of organization, people, and mechanism, methods. It is extremely necessary to construct a risk management paradigm for BPR. FMEA is a useful and practical approach for risk analysis of business process re-engineering. A BPR risk architecture based on FMEA is provided as an integrated risk management process, and would further improve the understanding of re-engineering. To fulfill the BPR risk management methodology, it is also important to realize the continuous improvement to apply it correctly to BPR in terms of ISO/DIS9000 and CMM, therefore risk manager must pay more attention to standardize the method and plan to future.


Title: Using a modified Hazop/FMEA methodology for assessing system risk

Source: EMAT 2001: 2ND INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT FOR APPLIED TECHCNOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS

Author: Trammell, SR; Davis, BJ

Year: 2001

Abstract: As semiconductor manufacturing processes become more complex and the costs associated with manufacturing line downtime soar, the reliability of the supporting systems have become a major area of focus. Preventive and predictive maintenance, real time system status monitoring, and periodic inspections are typical methods used to help reduce unexpected system failures. Although these methods are proactive, they are typically applied on the basis of perceived risk or solely on the historical perspective of the designer or owner. Utilization of a robust and flexible system risk assessment method early in the design phase is a highly effective approach to increasing system tip time and identifying design weaknesses. This paper will present a risk assessment approach based on strengths of both Hazard and Operability Study (Hazop), and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) methodologies.


Title: Treatment of reliability for reuse and remanufacture

Source: SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS DESIGN AND INVERSE MANUFACTURING, PROCEEDINGS

Author: Murayama, T; Shu, LH

Year: 2001

Abstract: Summarized are approaches addressing reliability in reuse (without repair) and remanufacture. To support the design of a product whose life cycle involves reuse without repair, two types of reliability data (time to failure and quality-deterioration data) were used in the simulation of the material flow during the life cycle. For management of material flow, reliability models were developed and applied to predict quantities of returned products and reusable components for each time period. The predicted results can be used for production planning in manufacturing firms using reusable parts as well as new parts. A reliability model was developed and validated to better describe populations of systems that undergo repairs performed during remanufacture or maintenance. Remanufacturer waste streams of several products Were analyzed to reveal remanufacture difficulties. A modified FMEA uses the results of waste-stream analyses and considers case of detection and repair of failure in conjunction with waste-stream contribution of failure modes in design for remanufacture.


Title: Reliability considerations: Optical sensors for the control and measurement of power

Source: 2001 IEEE/PES TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION, VOLS 1 AND 2

Author: Nicholson, G

Year: 2001

Abstract: The Aerospace, Space and Military industries have succeeded in using the discipline of Reliability Engineering to predict the Mean-Time-Between-Failure (MTBF) and the Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) for complex electronic, optical and mechanical systems. As the power industry adopts new technologies to control and protect its assets, complex electronic and optical systems are becoming prevalent with the consequence that reliability analysis tools are becoming increasingly relevant and useful. Techniques such as Parts Count Method, Parts Stress Analysis (PSA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (TMEA), themselves staples of the aforementioned industries, will become a regular part of the design process for power industry equipment. NxtPhase Corporation is currently adapting the Fiber Optic Gyroscope Sensor (FOGS) technology from Aerospace industry applications to systems that will provide accurate measurements of current, at transmission line voltages, over a 30-year lifetime, Extensive use of Reliability Engineering tools will ensure that the reliability performance achieved by the FOGS technology in Aerospace applications is replicated in products for the optical power measurement domain.


Title: RCM - The driver for T & D condition-based maintenance - A utility perspective

Source: 2001 IEEE/PES TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION, VOLS 1 AND 2

Author: Pierpoint, TJ

Year: 2001

Abstract: There is ever decreasing societal tolerance for electric outages, equipment failures, and industrial accidents. T&D maintenance programs must be transitioned to be reflective of high-risk industries, such as commercial aircraft maintenance. This paper presents the efforts of Pepco in realigning our substation maintenance program and the critical roles of RCM and Condition-Based Maintenance.


Title: Selecting substation monitoring

Source: 2001 IEEE/PES TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION, VOLS 1 AND 2

Author: Bergman, WJ

Year: 2001

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology that can be used to evaluate the parameters that are important to the individual user and even to the individual substation equipment. The method recognizes parameters that are important to the individual user and can be tailored to individual circuits. The method recognizes the principles of asset and risk management. Monitoring is implemented on the basis of optimizing circuit breaker failures, delivery point reliability, equipment life, and maintenance effort while maximizing human and environmental safety, and return on assets.

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